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V.-ANALYSIS, PARSING, AND CONSTRUCTION.

Analysis is the separation of a sentence into the parts which compose it.

OBS.—The difference between analysis and parsing is this: in the former, only those distinctions are considered which are common to all languages, since every sentence must consist of a subject and a predicate and the words subordinate to these ; but in parsing those distinetions and peculiarities are noted which characterize different languages, and give rise to particular rules.

A simple sentence is one that contains only one proposition; as, "Fire burns.”—“The truth will prevail."

A phrase is a combination of two or more words expressing some relation of ideas, but no entire proposition; as, “Of a good disposition.”-“By the means appointed.”

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The subject of a sentence generally consists of a noun or a pronoun, with or without adjuncts; the predicate of a sentence consists of a verb, with or without adjuncts.

Words added directly to either of the principal parts are sometimes called primary adjuncts ; as, 6. Good books always deserve a careful perusal.” Words added to other adjuncts are called secondary adjuncts ; as, Suddenly acquired wealth very rarely brings happi

ness.

Adjuncts are divided, with respect to their office, into three classes ; namely, adjective, adverbial, and explanatory.

An adjective adjunct is one used to modify or limit a noun or a pronoun; as, Both those bad boys deserve severe punishment.”

An adverbial adjunct is one used like an adverb ; as, “Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth.

An explanatory adjunct is one used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun ; as, “ The emperor Napoleon was banished.” We, the people, ordain this constitution.”

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Nouns may be modified by adjuncts of various forms :1. An article or an adjective ; as, 6. The diligent scholar improves."

2. A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case; as, “William's sister has lost her book."

3. A verb used as an adjective; as, “The desire to excel is laudable."

4. A preposition and its object, used together as an adjective; as, "A man of integrity obeys the dictates of conscience.

5. A noun or pronoun used as an explanatory adjunct; as, “His brother Charles is idle."

Verbs may be modified by adverbial adjuncts of various forms :1. An adverb ; as, “ The sun shines brightly."

A preposition and its object, used together as an adverb; as, “ He came from Boston.

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An adjective, participle, noun, or pronoun, used in the predicate of a sentence, but relating to the subject, is called an attribute; as, "Geld is yellow.”—“The sun is shining." -"Honesty is the best policy."

OBS.—The attribute, when it is a noun or a pronoun, is in the same case as the subject to which it refers ; as, “It is I, be not afraid.”— “Who is she ? "_"They believed it to be me.In analyzing a simple sentence, point out:

1. The subject.
2. The predicate.
3. The subject noun and its adjuncts.
4. The predicate verb and its adverbial adjuncts.
5. ( The object and its adjuncts, or

The attribute and its adjuncts.

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Escercises in Analysis and Parsing.

Praxis 11.-Etymological. In the Second Praxis, it is required of the pupil : to classify and analyze the sentence as in the preceding praxis ; to point out, in addition, the adjuncts in each of the principal parts, and distinguish their classes ; and to parse the sentence by distinguishing the different parts of speech, and the classes and modifications of the nouns, distinguishing also the article as definite or indefinite. Thus :

EXAMPLE 1.-ANALYZED AND PARSED.

“The Athenians carefully observed Solon's wise laws."

ANALYSIS.--This is a simple declarative sentence. The subject is the Athenians; the predicate is carefully observed Solon's wise laws. The subject noun is Athenians, limited by the adjunct the ; the predicate verb is observed, and its adjuncts are the adverb carefully and the object laws; the adjuncts of the object are Solon’s and wise.

PARSING.--The is the definite article, because it limits the noun Athenians.

Athenians is a proper noun, because it is the name of a particular people; of the third person, because they are spoken of; of the plural number, because the noun denotes more than one; of the common gender, because it includes both sexes; and in the nominative case, because it is the subject of the verb observed.

Carefully is an adverb, because it is added to the verb observed, and expresses

manner.

Observed is a verb, because it expresses action.

Solon's is a proper nonin, because it is the name of a particular individual; it is of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and in the possessive case, because it indicates the possession of laws.

Wise is an adjective, because it is added to the noun laws.

Laws is a common noun, because it is the name of a class of things; of the third person, plural number, neuter gender, and in the objective case, because it is the object of the verb observed.

Integrity inspires confidence. Perseverance overcomes all obstacles. Generosity always makes friends. Pleasure's call always wins an eager attention. Avarice rapidly extinguishes every generous sentiment The study of astronomy greatly elevates the mind. The enterprising merchant has just returned from Europe. Every person highly praised Williar's noble conduct. Riotous indulgence very soon destroys the bodily vigor. Where did your kind father purchase that interesting book! Charles's resignation filled all Europe with astonishment. Indalgence in sloth can never lead to prosperity. The beautiful scenes of nature ever excite the admiration of mankind.

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A simple declarative sentence.
Subject, filial ingratitude; predicate, is a shameful crime,
Subject noun, ingratitude ; adjunct, filial.

Predicate verb, is ; adjunct, the attribute crime; adjuncts of the attribute, a and shameful.

Honesty is the best policy. Liberty is a great blessing. Rose leaves are very fragrant. William soon became a very good scholar. The contract was pronounced fraudulent. Cool blows the summer breeze. The sky suddenly grew black. The soul of the diligent shall be made fat. The memory of mischief is no desirable fame. He was born a lord. Washington was twice elected President. How wonderful is sleep! en was Victoria crowned queen of England ? Columbus was undoubtedly an extraordinary man. The distant hills look blue. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.

Construction and Composition.

Construction is the combination of words into sentences.

Composition is the combination of sentences to express connected thought.

OBS. -In a composition the sentences are related to each other by the thoughts which they express. Without this connection, or logical relation, sentences do not form a composition. Thus the sentences in the preceding exercise for analysis do not form a composition, because the thoughts which they express are not logically related to one another.

Exercises.
Construct the following: -
A sentence with a noun, a verb, and adjuncts of each.

A sentence with a subject noun, a predicate verb, and an object with its adjuncts.

A sentence with a subject pronoun, a predicate verb, and an attribute noun, with or without adjuncts.

A sentence with an adjective attribute, with or without adjuncts.
Write three sentences of any of these kinds describing a tree.
Write four sentences describing a fish.
Write five sentences about a clock.
Write several sentences forming a short composition upon a horse.

Cautions. 1. Do not use the same word too often, nor express the same thought more than once.

2. Avoid all slang expressions.

3. Do not use too many short sentences in succession. Join some of them together so as to make the style more pleasing.

4. Be careful to spell all the words correctly, to use capitals according to the rules, and to place a period at the end of each sentence. When sentences are united, they should be separated by a comma (,). Phrases should also, usually, be set off by a comma.

Criticise the following :

The Owl. The owl is a curious kind of bird. It has curious large eyes. It cannot see in the Light. it hides away in the daytime in dark places. the sun dazzles his eyes. He comes out at night and goes flying around looking after his prey. It catches birds and moles and mice and other animals it also catches insects. There are a good many kinds of owls, such as the Eagle owl, the Cat owl the Screech owl and others. Did you ever hear an Owl loot in the night? It makes a Kind of mournful sound, i was awfully scared one night hearing a screech owl in the woods. I couldn't think what it was. Owls are very funny creatures.

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