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VII.-PRONOUNS.
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.

Classes.

Pronouns are divided into three classes ; personal, relative, and interrogative.

A personal pronoun is a pronoun that shows by its form, of what person it is.

OBS.—That is, the word itself shows whether it is of the first, second, or third person.

The simple personal pronouns are five: namely, 1, of the first person; thou, of the second person; he, she, and it, of the third person.

The compound personal pronouns are also five: namely, myself, of the first person ; thyself, of the second person ; himself, herself, and itself, of the third person.

OBS.—The compound personal pronouns are used when an action reverts upon the agent, or for special emphasis ; as, "He has injured himself."-" • She herself was to blame."

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that represents an antecedent word or phrase, and connects different clauses of a sentence.

The relative pronouns are who, which, what, and that ; and the compounds, whoever or whosoever, whichever or whichsoever, whatever or whatsoever.

What is a kind of double relative, equivalent to that which or those which, and is therefore to be considered as including both the antecedent and the relative.

An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun with which a question is asked.

The interrogative pronouns are who, which, and what; being the same in form as relatives.

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OBs. 1.- Who is usually applied to persons only ; which, though formerly applied to persons, is now confined to animals and inanimate things; what (as a mere pronoun) is applied to things only; that is applied indifferently to persons, animals, or things.

OBs. 2.- The pronoun what, having a twofold relation, represents two cases at the same time; as, “He is ashamed of what he has done;" that is, of that [thing] which he has done. It is usually of the singular number, though sometimes plural; as, “I must turn to the faults, or what appear such to me.”—Byron.

OBs. 3. – What is sometimes used both as an adjective and a relativo at the same time, and is placed before the noun which it represents ; as, What money we had was taken away;" that is, All the money that we had, etc.-" What man but enters, dies ;” that is, Any man who, etc. The compound whatever or whatsoever has the same peculiarities of construction; as, “We will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth.”Jer. xliv.,

OBS. 4.- Who, which, and what, when the affix ever or soever is added, have an unlimited signification; and, as some general term, such as any person, or any thing, is usually employed as the antecedent, they are all commonly followed by two verbs; as, "Whoever attends, will improve ;” that is, Any person who attends, will improve. In analysis and parsing, supply the antecedent.

OBS. 5.—The word as, though usually a conjunction or an adverb, has sometimes the construction of a relative pronoun; as, “The Lord added to the church daily such [persons) as should be saved.”—Acts ii., 47.

OBS. 6.- Whether was formerly used as an interrogative pronoun, referring to one of two things; as, Whether is greater, the gold or the tetaple ?”Matt. xxiii., 17.

OBS. 7.-Interrogative pronouns represent their nouns understood, like pronominal adjectives ; as, “What [deed] hast thou done ? “Which of these books will you have ?That is, Which book, etc.

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Modifications.

Pronouns have the same modifications as nouns ; namely, Persons, Numbers, Genders, and Cases.

OBS. 1. - In the personal pronouns, most of these properties are indicated by the words themselves; in the relative pronoun, it is necessary to refer to the antecedent which it represents; and in the interrogative,

"Who

to the word, usually in the answer, which it represents; as, comes here ? A friend."

OBS. 2.---The gender of the personal pronouns of the first and second person is to be determined by referring to the words for which they are used, or to be considered as of the common gender.

Declension of Pronouns.

The declension of a pronoun is a regular arrangement of its numbers and cases.

The simple personal pronouns are thus declined :

I, of the first person.
Sing. Nom. I,

Plur. Nom. we,
Poss. my, or mine,

Poss. our, or ours,
Obj. me;

Obj. us.

Thou, of the second person.
Sing. Nom. thou,

Plur. Nom. ye, or you,
Poss. thy, or thine,

Poss. your, or yours,
Obj. thee;

Obj. you.

He, of the third person.
Sing. Nom. he,

Plur. Nom. they,
Poss. his,

Poss. their, or theirs,
Obj. him ;

Obj. them.

She, of the third person.
Sing. Nom. she,

Plur. Nom. they,
Poss. her, or hers,

Poss. their, or theirs,
Obj. her;

Obj. them.

Sing. Nom. it,

Poss. its,
Obj. it;

It, of the third person.

Plur. Nom. they,

Poss. their, or theirs,

Obj. them.

OBS. 1.-Most of the personal pronouns have two forms of the possessive case, in each number: as, my or mine, our or ours; thy or thine, you or yours ; her or hers, their or theirs. The former is used before a noun expressed; the latter, when the governing noun is understood, or when the possessive pronoun is used as an attribute; as, My powers are thine."

OBS. 2.- Mine and thine were formerly used before all words beginning with a vowel sound; my and thy, before others; as, “It was thou, a man, mine equal, my guide, and mine acquaintance.”Psalm. But this usage is now obsolete, or peculiar to the poets; as,

" Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow."- Byron.

OBS. 3.-In ancient times, he, his, and him, were applied to things neuter. In our translation of the Bible, the pronoun it is employed in the nominative and the objective, but his is retained in the possessive, neuter; as, “Look not thou upon the wine, when it is red, when it giveth his color in the cup, when it moveth itself aright.”Prov. xxiii., 31. Its is not found in the Bible, except by misprint.

Compound Personals. The word self, added to the simple personal pronouns, forms the class of compound personal pronouns ; which are used when an action reverts upon the agent, and also when some persons are to be distinguished from others : as, sing. myself, plur. ourselves; sing. thyself, plur. yourselves ; sing. himself, plur. themselves ; sing. herself, plur. themselves; sing. itself, plur. themselves. They all want the possessive case, and are alike in the nominative and objective.

Relatives and Interrogatives.

The relative and the interrogative pronouns are thus declined:

Who, applied only to persons.
Sing. Nom. who,

Plur. Nom. who,
Poss. whose,

Poss. whose,
Obj. whom;

Obj. whom.

Which, applied to animals and things.
Sing. Nom. which,

Plur. Nom. which,
Poss. *.

Poss.
Obj. which;

Obj. which.

What, generally applied to things.
Sing. Nom. what,

Plur. Nom. what,
Poss.

Poss.
Obj. what;

Obj. what.

That, applied to persons, animals, and things.
Sing. Nom. that,

Plur. Nom. that,
Poss.

Poss.
Obj. that ;

Obj. that.

Compound Relatives. The compound relative pronouns, whoever or whosoever, whichever or whichsoever, and whatever or whatsoever, are declined in the same manner as the simples, who, which, what.

Exercises.

1. Write the nominative plural of the follorcing pronouns : I, thou, he, she, it, who, which, that, what. 2. Write the objective singular and plural of all the simple pronouns. 3. Write the declension of the following :Myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself, whoever, whosoever. 4. Correct the form of each of the following :Her's, it's, our's, your's, their's, who's, hisself, theirselves. 5. Write sentences, each containing one of the following pronouns :

Me, them, thou, your, their, me, ye, himself, myself, themselves, who, which, whom, what, that, whoever, whichever, whomsoever.

* Whose is sometimes used as the possessive case of which; as, “A religion whose origin is divine."-Blair.

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