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When simple sentences are connected, they form compound or complex sentences, and are then called clauses.

A clause, therefore, is a division of a compound or a complex sentence.

Compound or complex clauses are sometimes called members.

A clause used as one of the principal parts of a sentence, or as an adjunct to any word in it, is called a dependent clause.

The clause on which it depends, or of which it forms a part, is called the principal clause.

A complex sentence is one composed of a principal clause and one or more dependent clauses.

A compound sentence is one composed of two or more independent clauses.

Clauses may be connected by conjunctions, relative pro. nouns, or adverbs (then called conjunctive adverbs).

A clause introduced by a relative pronoun, is often called a relative clause.

When two or more subjects, connected by a conjunction, belong to the same predicate, or two or more connected predicates have the same subject, the sentence should be considered simple with a compound subject or a compound predicate.

OBS.—The relative clause is a dependent clause, and the sentence in which it occurs is therefore complex. It is not, however, always a modifying clause, being sometimes used to express an additional fact. Thus, in the sentence, “ This is the man that committed the deed,” the relative clause modifies the noun man; but in the sentence, “I gave the book to John, who has lost it,” it is equivalent to “and he has lost it.” In each case it is used like an adjective; since the same distinction applies to adjectives as to relative clauses, some being used to modify, others to describe; as, A wild beast (modifying); The huge elephant (descriptive).

Exercises in Analysis and Parsing.

Praxis III.-Etymological. In the Third Praxis, it is required of the pupilto classify the sentences ; to point out the component clauses ; to analyze and parse each a3 in the preceding praxis ; and to state the classes and modifications of the pronouns. Thus:

FIRST EXAMPLE, ANALYZED AND PARSED. “Children who disobey their parents, deserve punishment.”

ANALY8IX.- This is a complex declarative sentence; the principal clause is, Children deserve punishment, and the dependent clause is, Who disobey their parents, an adjective adjunct of children ; the connective word is who.

The subject noun of the principal clause is children ; the predicate verb is deserve ; and the object is punishment. The adjunct of the subject noun is the dependent clause; the other parts have no adjuncts. The subject of the dependent clause is who ; the predicate verb is disobey; the object is parents ; the adjunct of parents is their.

PARSING.-- Who is a relative pronoun, because it represents the antecedent word children, and connects the two clauses of the sentence; it is of the third person, because it represents the persons spoken of; of the plural number, because it denotes more than one; of the common gender, because it is a term equally applicable to both sexes ; and in the nominative case, because it is the subject of the verb disobey; its declension in both numbers is, Nom, woho ; Poss. whose ; Obj. whom.

Their is a personal pronoun, because it shows by its form that it is of the third person; it is of the plural number, common gender, and in the possessive case, because it denotes the possession of parents. Its declension is, Nom. they ; Poss, their, or their8 ; Obj. them.

Parse the other words as in the preceding praxes.

SECOND EXAMPLE, ANALYZED. “Can we see God, or must we believe in him ?"

A compound interrogative sentence, consisting of two independent clauses connected by or. The subject of the first clanse is we ; the predicate verb, can see ; and the object, God. The subject of the second clause is we; the predicate verb, must believe, modified by the adverbial phrase adjunct in him.

Prosperity gains many friends, but adversity tries them.

A wise son heareth his father's instruction, but a scorner heareth not rebuke.

He who conquers his passions, overcomes his greatest enemies.
You should listen patiently if you would speak effectively.
Virtue refines the affections, but vice debases them.

The poems of Homer celebrate the exploits of Achilles, who killed the Trojan prince Hector.

He who runs may read so plain a truth.
•Who that has common sense can entertain so absurd a notion ?

When will you complete the task which you have undertaken ?
· The eye, that sees all things, cannot see itself.

They who would govern others must first govern themselves. • Flattery often succeeds, when reason entirely fails. • We are often benefited by what we have dreaded.

Frankness, suavity, and benevolence were prominent traits in tlı: character of Dr. Franklin.

The study of natural history expands and elevates the mind.
Get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and live contentedly.
Industry, good sense, and virtue are essential to happiness.

Exercises in Construction. 1. Write five compound sentences, each consisting of two simple clauses connected by and 09 but.

2. Write five complex sentences, each containing a simple relative clause,


Punctuation.-The simple clauses composing a compound sentence should be separated by a comma; but when a comma is used to separate the parts of either, a semicolon should be employed.

A relative clause should be separated by a comma, unless it is used as a modifying adjunct.

When a relative clause is a modifying adjunct, it can often be changed to an adjective or participle; and the sentence will then become simple. Thus, The pupil who is diligent vill excel, can be changed to The diligent pupil will excel.

Sometimes a phrase consisting of a noun and an adjective can be substituted for the relative clause and the antecedent. Thus, He who labors faithfully will succeed, is equivalent to A faithful laborer will succeed.

Change the following complex into simple sentences by either of the tica methods above indicated.

A man who is honest will be trusted.
Lines that are parallel never meet.
A king that oppresses his people is hated.
The key that is used is always bright.
They pitied and relieved the man who was blind.
They who slander others break the divine commandment.

He who studies diligently will improve.
He that tilleth his land shall be satisfied with bread.
The spoils belong to him who gains the victory.
Persons who are irritable are unpleasant associates.

When the relative clause is not a modifying adjunct, the sentence can be made compound, by substituting for the relative pronoun a conjunction and a personal pronoun. Thus, John, who committed the fault, has been forgiven, may be changed to, John committed the fault, but he has been forgiven.

Change in this manner the following complex to compound sentences.
Use such conjunctions as and, , but, because, since.
My friend, who went to Europe, has returned.
The eye, that sees all things, cannot see itself.

Captain John Smith, who was taken by the Indians, was saved by Pocahontas.

Mr. Williams, who failed in business last year, has commenced again,
He gave the book to his brother, who has lost it.
The letter was sent by a messenger, who failed to deliver it.
The traveler narrated a very curious incident, which was not believed.

Socrates, who was pronounced by the oracle the wisest of men, was put to death by the Athenians.

Leonidas, who defended the pass of Thermopylæ against the Persian army, was a great patriot and hero.

Composition. Write a composition consisting of simple, compound, and complex sentences, describing each of the following objects-stating its use, the parts of which it is composed, the material of which each of these parts is made, and what different trades or occupations are concerned in its manufuc. ture.

A book. A pen. A slate. A stove. A map. A globe. A bell. A clock. A carriage. A shoe. A knife. A skate. A carpet. A plough. A silver dollar. A bank bill. An umbrella. A house. An earthen jug. A bottle. A piano. A ship. A chair. A bureau. A broom.

[The teacher should supply all information that may be needed by the pupils, in order to make the description suficiently full and accurate, but should be careful that the pupils use their own language, and apply the rules and principles already learned. When others are violated, the corrections may be made arbitrarily. In this way the habit of correctly using langnage will be cultivated.]


A verb is a word that signifies to be, to act, or to be

acted upon.


Verbs are divided, with respect to their form, into four classes : regular, irregular, redundant, and defective.

A regular verb is a verb that forms the preterit and the perfect participle by assuming d or ed; as, love, loved, loving, loved.

OBS. 1.-Whether a verb is regular or irregular depends upon the changes which it undergoes in order to express differences in the mode, time, or other circumstances of the action or being indicated by the verb. Thus, the verb walk becomes walked in order to express a past action; while the participle is derived by adding ing or ed; as, walking, walked. These additional syllables, which change the primitive form of the verb, are called inflections. In some languages they are very numerous; but in English they are quite few, the language in this respect being very simple.

OBS. 2. —The preterit is the form for the past. There are four parts in every verb from which all others are derived: the present, the past or preterit, the imperfect participle (always ending in ing), and the perfect participle. When these are given all the other parts of the verb become known. Hence, they are called the priricipal parts.

An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the preterit and the perfect participle by assuming d or ed ; as, see, saw, seeing, seen.

A redundant verb is a verb that forms the preterit or the perfect participle in two or more ways, and so as to be both regular and irregular; as, thrive, thrived or throve, thriving, thrived or thriven.

A defective verb is a verb that forms no participles, and is used in but few of the moods and tenses; as, beware, ought, quoth.

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