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that this notice is drawn up. Its satire, however well directed in many ways, is too sweeping to be just every way, and is in several instances wholly undeserved. The designer gives evidence however of great capability, and should he execute another it will inevitably be better than this, which is, after all, an extraordinary production.—In witness whereof, and therefrom, is extracted and prefixed the " Beadle" hereinbefore mentioned.
■ ATURALISTS* CALENDAR.
Mean Temperature ... 36 • 37.
1826. Sesagexima Sunday.
Accession of George IV.
1820. King George III. died. A contemporary kalendarian, in recording this memorable fact, observes, that "the slow and solemn sound of St. Paul's bell announced the event a short time after, and was heard to a great distance around the country.'' He adds, that he was reminded, by this "mournful pioclamation of departed royally," of the fallowing lines in Heywood's "Rape of Lucrece," written to go to a funeral peal from eight bells:
Come list and hark, the bell doth 'oil
This opportunity the same agreeable writer improves to discourse on, thus:
Bell* The passing bell owes its origin to an idea of sanctity attached to bells by the early Catholics, who believed that the sound of these holy instruments of percussion actually drove the devil away from the soul of the departing Christian. Bells were moreover regarded formerly as dispelling storms, and appeasing the imagined wrath of heaven, as the following liens from Bainaby Googe will show:—
If that the thunder chaunce to rare
and stormie tempest shake, A woonder is it for to see
the wretches howe they quake,
nor (rust in any thing,
at once in steeple ring:
than he w as woont before,
the thunder bray no more. For in these christned belles they think*,
doth lie such powre and might As able is the tempest great,
and storme to vanquish qulght. I saw myself at Numburg once,
a towne in Toring coast, A bell that with this title bolde
hirself did prowdly boast: By name I Mary called am,
with sound I put to flight
and every wicked spright.
no wonder ceitainlie
their tolling always flie,
or tempest comes in sight,
that every place doth smiglit.
We find from Brand, that "an old bell at Canterbury required twenty-four men, and another thirty-two men, ad senandum. The noblest peal of ten belN, without exception, in England, whether tone or tune be considered, is said to he in St. Margaret's church, Leicester. When a full peal was rung, the ringers were said ' pulsare classicum.'"
Bells were a great object of supers! i. tion among our ancestors. Each of them was represented to have its peculiar name and virtues, and many are said to have retained great affection for the churches to «hich they belonged, and where thev were consecrated. When a bell was removed from its original and favourite situation, it was sometimes supposed to take a nightly trip to its old place of residence, unless exercised in the evening, and secured with a chain or rope. Mr Warner, in his "Hampshire,'' enumo rates the virtues of a bell, by translating two lines from the " Helpe to Discourse."
Men's deaths I tell by doleful knell.
The sleepy head I raise from bed.
There is an old Wiltshire legend of a tenor bell having been conjured into ihe river; with lines by the ringer, who lost it through his pertinacious garrulity, and which say:
In spite of all the devils in hell
Here comes our old Bell.*
Baron Holberg says he was in a company of men of letters, where several conjectures were offered concerning the origin of the word campana ; a klocke, (i. e. bell) in the northern tongues. On his return home, he consulted several writers. Some, he says, think the word hlocke to be of the northern etymology; these words, Ut cloca habeatur in ccclesia, occurring in the most ancient histories of the north. It appears from hence, that in the infancy of Christianity, the word cloca was used in the north instead of campana. Certain french writers derive the word cloca from cloche, and this again from clocher, i. e. to limp; for, say they, as a person who limps, falls from one side to the other, so do klockt (hells) when rung. Some have recourse to the latin word clangor, others recur to the greek Koato, I call; somp even deduce it from the word cochlea, a snail, from the resemblance of its shell to a bell. As to the latin word campana, it ■was first used in Italy, at Nola in Campania; and it appears that the greater bells only were called campana, and the lesser nola. The invention of them is generally attributed to bishop Paulinus; but this certainly must be understood only of the religious use of them; it being plain, from Roman writers, that they had the like machines called tintinnalmla.
The use of bells continued long unknown in the east, the people being called to public worship by strokes of wooden hammers; and to this day the Turks proclaim the beginning of their service, by vociferations from the steeple. Anciently
* Dr. Forater'* Perennial Calendar.
priesU themselves used to toll the bell, especially in cathedrals and great churches, and these were distinguished by the appellation of campanarii. The Roman Catholics christen their bells, and godfathers assist at the solemnity; thus consecrating them to religious use. According to Helgaudus, bells had certain names given them like men , and Ingulphus says, " he ordered two great clocks (bells) to be made, which were called Bartholomews and Bettelinus, and two lesser, Pega and Bega." The time is perhaps uncertain when the hours first began to be distinguished by the striking of a bell. In the empire this custom is said to have been introduced by a priest of Ripen, named Elias, who lived in the twelfth century; and this the Chronicon Anonymi Ripon.se says of him, hie dies el horat campanarum pulsatione diitinmf. The use of them soon became extended from their original design to other solemnities, and especially burials: which incessant tolling has long been complained of as a public nuisance, and to this the french poet alludes :— Pour honorer les morts, ils font mourir les vivans.
Besides the common way of tolling bells, there is also ringing, which is a kind of chimes used on various occasions in token of joy. This ringing prevails in no country so much as in England, where u is a kind of diversion, and, for a piece a money, any one may have a peal. Oh this account it is, that England is called the ringing island. Chimes are something very different, and much more musical; there is not a town in all the Netherlands without them, being an invention of that country. The chimes at Copenhagen, are one of the finest sets in all Europe; but the inhabitants, from a pertinacious fondness for old things, or the badness of their eat, do not like them so well as the old ones, which were destroyed by a conflagration.
The Rev. W. L. Bowles has an effusion agreeably illustrative of feelings on hearing the bells ring.
How sweet the tuneful bells responsive peal!
As when at opening morn, the fragrant breeir
So piercing to try heart their force 1 feel!
And hark! with lessening cadence uow they fall,
And now, along the white and level tide.
They (ling their melancholy music wide;
When by my native streams, in life's fair prime,
The mournful magic of their mingling chime
"The Times"* has a literary corres- a parish bell," it has occurred to me tliat
pondent, who communicates information the following description of the practice
that it may be useful to record. of baptizing belli, used by the Roman
Consecration Op Bells. Catholics may not be unacceptable to
your readers, I his account is a true
To the Editor of the Timet. translation from a book entitled "Ponti
Mr. Editor,—Having read in your ficale Romanian, Autoritate Pontificia,
paper of to-day, that the king of France impressnm Venetiit, 1698. Lib.ii. Cap.
"has been pleased to grant to the parish de Benedictione Signi vel Campanac'' I
of Notie-Dame, at Nismes, two unser- have run parallel with their method ot
viceable pieces of cannon from the ar«.enal baptizing children and bells, in twelve
of Montpelliei, for the purpose of forming particulars, as follows :—
Of the Baptism of a Child. Of the Baptism of a Bell.
I. The child must be first baptized, before The bell must be first baptized, before it can be accounted one of the church. it may be hung in the steeple.
II. The child must be baptized by a priest The bell must be baptized by a bishop oi a minister. or his deputy.
In baptizing a child there is used holy In the baptism of a bell, there is u.«i-d water, cream, salt, oil, spittle, 8cc &c. holy water, oil, salt, cream, tapers for
lights, &c IV In baptism, the child leceivcth a name. And so it is m the baptism of bclla.
V. The child must have godfathers, &c, The bell must have godfathers, and they &c. must be persons of great rank.
VI. The child must be washed in water. The bell must be washed in water by
the hands of the bishop and priests.
'I'll'' child must be crossed in baptism. The boll is solemnly crossed by the
bishop. VIII. The child must be anointed. The bell is anointed by the bishop.
IX. The child must be baptized in the name The bell is washed and anointed, it. of the Holy Trinity. the name of the Trinity, by the bishop.
X, At baptism mey pray for the child. At the baptism of the bell they pray
literally for the bell.
• Sept. 17. wit.
At the child's baptism the scriptures There are more psalms read at the bapare read tism of a bell than at the baptism of a
child; and a gospel also.
At child-baptism there are public At the baptism of a bell there are more prayers made. prayers used, and (excepting salvation)
greater things are prayed for, and more blessings on the bell, than on the child. But for the better proof of this point, I shall here give part of one of the very curious prayers put up for the bell at its baptism :—
Lord grant that wheresoever this holy bell, thus washed (or baptized)
and blessed, shall sound, all deceits of Satan, all danger of whirlwind, thunders, lightnings, and tempests, may be driven away, and that devotion may increase in Christian men when they hear it. O Lord, sanctify it by thy Holy Spirit; that when it sounds in thy people's ears they may adore Thee! May their faith and devotion increase, the devil bo afraid, and tremble and fly at the sound of it. O Lord, pour upon it thy heavenly biasing! that the fiery darts of the devil may be made to fly backwards at the sound thereof; that it may deliver from danger of wind and thunder, &c , &c. And grant, Lord, that all that come to the church at the sound of it, may be free from all temptations of the devil. O Lord, infuse into it the heavenly dew of thy Holy Ghost, that the devil may always fly away before the sound of it, &.c, &c.
The doctrine of the church of Rome concerning bells is, first, that they have merit, and pray God for the living and the dead; secondly, that they produce devotion in the hearts of believers; thirdly, that they drive away storms and tempests; and, fourthly,that they drive away devils.
The dislike of evil spirits to the sound of bells, is extremely well expressed by Wynkin de Worde, in the Golden Legend: —" It is said, the evil spirytes that ben in the region of th* ayre, doubte moche when they here the belles rongen: and this is the cause why the belles ringen whan it thondreth, and whan grete tempeste and to rages of wether happen, to the ende that the feinds and wycked spirytes should ben abashed and flee, and cease of the movynge of tempeste."
As to the names given to bells, I beg leave to add, that the bells of Little Dunmow Priory, in Essex, new cast A. D. 1501, were baptized by the following names:—
Prima in honore Sancti Michaelis Archangeli.
Secunda in honore S. Johannis Erangelisti
Tertia in honore S. Johannis Baptisti.
Quarta in honore Assumption)* beat* Maria.
Quinta in honore Sancti Trinitatis, et omnium Sanctorum.
In the clochier near St. Paul's stood the our greatest bells in Kngland, called Jcxus's bells I against these sir Miles
Partridge staked 100/., and won them of
I conclude with remarking, that the AbW Cancellieri, of Rome, lately published a work relative to bells, wherein he has inserted a long letter, written by Father Ponyard to M. de Saint Vincens, on the history of bells and steeples. The Abbe wrote this dissertation on the occasion of two bells having been christened, which were to be placed within the tower of the capitol.
I am, sir,
Sept. 11. 11. II. E.
R. H. E. "wise and good" as he was, and he was both—he is now no more— would not willingly have misrepresented the doctrines of the Romish church, though he abhorred that hierarchy. It seems, however, that he may be mistaken in affirming, that the Romish church •naintains of bells that "they have merit, and pray God for the living and the dead. His affirmation on this point may betaken in too extensive a sense: It is no doubt a Romish tenet that there ii "much virtue in bells," but the precise degree allowed to them at this period, it would be difficult to determine without the aid of a council.
At Hatherteigh, a small town in Devon, exist two remarkable customs:—one, that
every morning and evening, soon after the church clock has struck five and nine, a bell from the same steeple announces by distant strokes the number of the day of the month—originally intended, pernaps, for the information of the unlearned rillagers: the other is, that after a funeral the church bells ring a lively peal, as in other places after a wedding; and to this custom the parishioners are perfectly reconciled by the consideration that the deceased is removed from a .-rene of trouble to a state of rest and peace.
When Mr. Colman read his Opera of "Inkle and Yarico" to the late Dr. Mosely, the Doctor made no reply during the progress of the piece. At the conclusion, Colman asked what he thought of it. "It won't do," said the Doctor. "Stuff—nonsense." Every body else having been delighted with it, this decided disapprobation puzzled the circle; he was asked why ?" I'll tell you why," answered the Critic; "you say in the finale—
'Now let us dance and sing, While all Barbadoe's bells do ring.' ft won't do—there is but one bell in all the island!"
With a citation from the poet of Erin, the present notice will "ring out" delightfully.
Those joyous hours are passed away,
And so 'twill be when I am gone,
Naturalists' Calendar. Mean Temperature. . . 36 • 64.
King Charles's Martyrdom, 1644.—Holiday at the Public Offxes, 1826. It is recorded that, after King Charles the First received sentence of death, on
Saturday the 27th, he spent the next day in devout exercises. He refused to see his friends, and ordered them to be told, that his time was precious, and the best thing they could do was to pray for him. On Monday the 29th, his children were brought to take their leave of him, viz. the lady Elizabeth and the duke of Gloucester. He first gave his blessing to the lady Elizabeth, bidding her that when she should see her brother James, -.he should tell him that it was his father's last desire that he should no more look upon his brother Charles as his eldest brother only, but be obedient to him as bis sovereign; and that they should love one another, and fonrive their father's enemies. The king added, "Sweetheart, you will forget this." "No," said she, "I shall never forget it as long as I live." He bid her not grieve and torment herself for him; for it would be a glorious death he should die, it being for the laws and liberties of this land, and for maintaining the true Protestant religion. He recommended to her the reading of " Bishop Andrews's Sermons," " Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity," and "Archbishop Laud's Book against Fisher." He further told her, that he had forgiven all his enemies, and hoped God would likewise forgive them. He bade her tell her mother, that his thoughts had never strayed from her, and that his love should be the same to the last. After this he took the duke of Gloucester, being then a child of about seven years of age, upon his knees, saying to him, "Sweetheart, now they will cut off thy father's head:" upou which the child looked with great earnestness upon him. The king proceeding, said, " Mark, child, what I say, they will cut off my head, and perhaps make thee a king: but mark what I say, you must not be a king so long as your brothers Charles and James do live; for they will cut offyour brothers' heads when they can catch them, and cut off thy head too at last: and therefore I charge you do not be made a king by them." At which the child fetched a deep sigh, and said, "I will be torn in pieces hist." Which expression falling from a child so young, occasioned no little joy to the king. This day the warrant for execution was passed, signed by fifty-nine of the judges, for the king to die the next day, between the hours of ten in the morning and five in the afternoon.
On the 30th, "The king having arrived