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Rome, and promising him to sue for his pardon. VV hereunto Taylor answered, "I woulde you and your fellowes would turne to Christ; as for me I will not turn toAntichrist." "Well," quoth the bishop, 'I am come to degrade you, wherefore

Sut on these vestures." "No," quoth octor Taylor, "I will not." "Wilt thou not?'' said the bishop. "I shall make thee, ere I goe." Quoth doctor Taylor, " S'ou shall not, by the grace of God." Then Bonner caused another to put them on his back; and when thus arrayed, Taylor, walking up and down, said, " How say you, my lord, am I not a goodly fool? How say you, my masters; if I were in Cheap, should I not have boys enough to laugh at these apish toys, and toying trumpery?" The bishop proceeded, with certain ceremonies, to his purpose, till at the last, when, according to the form, he should have struck Taylor on the breast with his crosier, the bishop's chaplain said, "My lord, strike him not, for he will sore strike again." Taylor favoured the chaplain's suspicion. "The cause," said he, *' is Christ's; and I were no good christian if I would not light in my master's quarrel." It appears that " the bishop laid his curse upon him, but s'ruck him not;" and after all was over, when he got up stairs, "he told master Bradford (for both lay in one chamber) that he had made the bishop of London afraid; for, saith he, laughingly, his chaplain gave him counsell not to strike with his crosier-staff, for that I would strike again; and by my troth, said he, rubbing his hands, I made him believe I would doe so indeed."

Thus was Taylor still cheerful from rectitude. In the afternoon his wife, his son, and John Hull his servant, were permitted to sup with him. After supper, walking up and down, he impressively exhorted them, with grave advice, to good conduct and reliance on Providence. "Then they, with weeping tears, prayed together, and kissed one the other; and he gave to his wife a book of the church service, set out by king Edward, which in the time of his imprisonment he daily used ; and unto his sonne Thomas he gave a latinr-1moke, containing the notable sayings of the old martyrs, gathered out of Eccletiimt'ica Hittoria; and in the end of that booke he wrote his testament and last vale." In this "vale," dated the 5th of February, he says to his family,"! goe before, and \ou shall follow after, to our

long home. I goe to the rest of my children. I have bequeathed you to the onely Omnipotent." In the same paper he tells his "dear friends of Hadley, to remain in the light opened so plainely and simply, truly, throughly, and generally in all England," for standing in wiiich he was to die in flames.

In the morning at two o'clock, the sheriff of London with his officers brought him, without light, from the counter to Aldgate. His wife, suspecting that he would be carried away thus privately, had watched, from the time they had parted, within the porch of St. Botolph's church, having her daughter Mary with her, and a little orphan girl named Elizabeth, whom the honest martyr had reared from three years old to her then age of thirteen: and when the sheriff and his company came nigh to where they stood, the child Elizabeth cried, " O my dear father! Mother, mother, here is my father led away." The darkness being so great that the one could not see the other, his wife cried, " Rowland, Rowland, where art thou?" Taylor answered, "Dear wife! I am here," and he stayed; and the sheriff's men would have forced hiin, but the sheriff said, " Stay a little, my masters, I pray you, and let him speak to his wife." Then he took his daughter Mary in his arms, and he, and his wife, and the orphan girl kneeled and prayed; and the sheriff, and many who were present, wept; and he arose and kissed his wife, and shook her by the hand, and said. " Farewell, my dear wife.be of good comfort, for I am quiet in my conscience; God shall stirup a father for my children." He had three others, besides his daughter Mary and the young Elizabeth, He then kissed Mary, and then Elizabeth, and he bade them, also, farewell, and enjoined them to stand steadfast in their faith. His weeping wife said, "God be with thee, dear Rowland, I will, with God's grace, meet thee at Hadleigh." Then he was led on to the Woolsack inn, at Aldgate, where he was put in a chamber, under the custody of four yeomen of the guard and the sheriff's men. Here his wife again desired to see him, but was restrained by the sheriff, who otherwise treated her with kindness, and offered her his own house to abide in ; but she preferred to go to her mother's, whither two officers conducted her, charging her mother to keep her within till their return.

Meantime

the chamber he prayed ; and he remained at the inn until the sheriff of Essex was ready to receive him. At eleven o'clock the inn gates were shut, and then he was put on horseback within the gates. When they arrived outside, Taylor saw his son Thomas standing against the rails, in the care of his man John Hull; and he said, "Come hither, my son Thomas." John Hull lifted the child up, and set him on the hotsebefore his father; and Taylor put off his hat, and spoke a sentence or two to the people in behalf of matrimony, and then he lifted up his eyes and prayed for hia^on, and laid his hat on the child's head, and blessed him. This done he delivered the child to John Hull, whom he took by the hand, and he said to him, "Farewell, John Hull, the faithfullest servant that ever man had." Having .so said, he rode forth with the sheriff of Essex and the yeomen of the guard to go. to his martyrdom in Suffolk.

When they came near to Brentwood, one Arthur Taysie, who had been servant to Taylor, supposing him free, took him by the hand and said, "Master Doctor, I am glad to see you again at liberty;" but the sheriff drove him back. At Brentwood, a close hood was put over Taylor's face, with holes for his eyes to look out at, and a slit for his mouth to Dreathe through. These hoods were used at that place to be put on the martyrs that they should not be known, and that they should not speak to any one, on the road to the burning-places.

Yet as they went, Taylor was so cheerful, and talked to the sheriff and his guards in such wise, that they were amazed at his constancy. At Chelmsford they met the sheriff of Suffulk, who was there to carry him into his county. At that time he supped with the two sheriffs. The sheriff of Essex laboured during supper to persuade him to return to queen Mary's religion, telling him that all present would use their suit to the queen for his pardon, nor doubted they could obtain it. The sheriff reminded him, that he had been beloved for his virtues, and honoured for his learning; that, in the course of nature, he was likely to live many years; and that he might even be higher esteemed than ever; wherefore he prayed him to be advised: "This counsel I give you," said the sheriff, "of a good heart and good will towards you;" and, thereupon he drank to him ; and the yeomen of the guard said, "In like manner,

upon that condition, master Doctot, we all drink to you." When they had so done, and the cup ;sme to Taylor, he staid awhile, as studying what he might say, and then answered thus: "Master sheriff, and my masters all, I heartily thank you for your good will. I have hearkened to your words and marked well your counsels; and to be plain with you, I do perceive that I have been deceived myself, and am likely to deceive a great many of their expectation." At these words they were exceedingly glad. "Would ye know my meaning plainly?" he said. " Yea, gool master Doctor," answered the sheriff, " tell it us plainly." "Then,"said Taylor," I will tell you:" and he said, that, as his body was of considerable bulk, and as he thought, if he had died in his bed, it would have been buried in Hadleinh church-yard, so he had deceived himself; and,as there were a great many worms there abiding, which would have mealed handsomely upon him, so they, as well as himself, were deceived; "for" said ne, " it must be burnt to ashes, and they will thereby lose their feeding." The sheriff and his company were thereupon astonished at him, as being a man without fear of death, and making a jest of the flames. During their progress, many gentlemen and magistrates were admitted to see him, and entreated him, in like manner, but he remained immovable.

Thus they drew near to Hadleigh: and when they rode over Hadleigh bridge, a poor man with his five small children awaited their coming. When they saw Taylor, they all fell down on their knees and held up their hands, and cried aloud, "God help and succour thee, as thou hast many a time succoured me and my poor children." The streets of Hadleigh were crowded on each side by men and women, of the town and country, sorely weeping, and with piteous voices loudly bewailing the loss of their pastor, praying that he might be strengthened and comforted in his extremity, and exclaiming, "VVhat shall become of this wicked world!" Taylor said," I have preached to you God's word and truth, and am come to seal it with my blood." When he came to the almshouses, he put some money, that had been bestowed on him during his imprisonment, into a glove, and this he is said to have given to the poor almsmen as they stood at their doors, to see their wonted benefactor pass At the last of the almshouses lie inquired, "Is the blind man, and blind woman, that dwelt here, alive .'" He was answered, "Yes; they are there, within." Then he threw glove and all in at the window, and so rode forth towards the field of his death.

Coming where a great multitude were assembled, lie asked, "What place is this, and what meaneth it that so much people are gathered hither'." It was answered, " This is Aldham common, the place where you must suffer." He said, "Thanked be God, I am even at home." Then he alighted from his horse, and with both his hands rent the hood from his head. His hair was unseemly, for Bonner, when he degraded him, had caused it to be clipped in manner of a fool's. At the sight of his ancient and reverend face, and his long white beard, the people burst into tears, and prayed for him aloud. He would have spoken to them, but whenever he attempted, one or other of the yeomen of the guard thrust a tipstaff into his mouth.

Then he desired licence to speak, of the sheriff; but the sheriff refused him, and bade him remember his promise to the council: " Well," quoth Taylor, "promise must be kept." What the promise was is unknown. Seating himself on the ground he called to one in the crowd, "Soyce, I pray thee come and pull off my boots, and take them for thy labour; thou hast long looked for them, now take them." Then he arose, and putting off his underclothes, them also he bestowed. This done, he cried with a loud voice, "Good people! I have taught you nothing but God's holy word, and those lessons that I have taken out of God's blessed book, the Holy Bible; and I am come hither this day to seal it with my blood." OneHolmes, a yeoman of the guard.who had used him cruelly all the way, then struck him a violent blow on the head "with a waster," and said, "Is that the keeping of thy promise, thou heretick V Whereupon Taylor knelt on the earth and prayed, and a poor, but faithful woman, stepped from among the people to pray with him: the guards would fain have thrust her away, they threatened to tread her down with their horses, but she was undismayed, and would not remove, but remained and prayed with him. Having finished his devotions he went to the slake, and kissed it, and placed himself in a pitch-barrel

which had been set for him to stand in; and he stood with his back upright against the stake, and he folded his hands together, and he lifted his eyes towards heaven, and he prayed continually. Then they bound him with chains, and the sheriff called one Richard Donningham, a butcher, and commanded him to set up the faggots, but he said, " I am lame, sir, and not able to lift a faggot." The sheriff threatened to send him to prison, but the man refused to obey his command notwithstanding. Then the sheriff appointed to this labour one Mullcine of Carsey, "a man for his virtues fit to be a hangman." Soyce, a very drunkard, a man named Warwick, and one Robert King, "a deviser of interludes." These four set up the faggots, and prepared for making ready the fire, and Warwick cast a faggot at the martyr, which lit upon his head and wounded his face, so that the blood ran down. Taylor said, " O, friend I I have harm enough, what needed that?" Then, while he repeated the psalm M'uerere, in English, sir John Slid ion struck him on the mouth: "You knave," said he, " speak Latin; or I will make thee." At last they set the faggots on fire, and Taylor, holding up both his hands, called on God, ciying, "Merciful Father of Heaven 1 for Jesus Christ our saviour's sake, receive my soul into thy hands 1" He stood, during his burning, without crying or moving, till Soyce struck him on the head with a halberd, and the brains falling out, the corpse fell down into the fire.*

While some may deem this narrative of Rowland Taylor's conduct too circumstantial, others perhaps may not so deem. It is to be considered as exemplifying the manners of the period wherein the event occurred, and may at least be acceptable to many. It will assuredly be approved by a few who regard inflexible adherence to principle, at the hazard of death itself, as preferable to a conscience-consuming subserviency, which, while it truckles to what the mind judges to be false, depraves the heart, and saps the foundations of public virtue.

Naturalists' Calendar. Mean Temperature . . . S9 ■ 05.

* Act! and Monuments.

jftbruarp 10.

Biographical Notice.

1818. On this day died in London, captain Thomas Morris, aged 74, a man of highly cultivated mind, who was born in itsenvirons, and for whom when young a maternal uncle, of high military rank, procured an ensigncy. He beat for recruits at Bridgewater, and enlisted the affections of a Miss Chubb of that town, whom he married. He was ordered with his regiment to America, where he fought by the side of general Montgomery.

Captain Morris at one time was taken by the Indians, and condemned to the stake; at the instant the women and children were preparing to inflict its tortures, be was recognised by an old sachem, whose life he had formerly saved, and who in grateful return pleaded so powerfully in his behalf, that he was unbound and permitted to return to his friends, who had given him up for lost. He published an affecting narrative of his captivity and sufferings; yet he was so attached to the Indian mode of life, that he used to declare they were the only human beings worthy of the name ofMEN. On his return from America to England, he quitted the army and gave himself to literary studies, and the conversation of a few enlightened friends. In the midst of "the feast of reason, and the flow of soul," he often sighed for the grand imagery of nature, the dashing cataracts of Columbia, the wild murmurs of rivers rolling through mountains, woods, and deserts. Having met with some disappointments which baffled his philosophy, he sought a spot for retirement, and found it in a nursery garden, at Paddington. Here in a small cottage, he compared Pope's translation of Homer with the original, in which he was assisted by Mr. George Dyer, a gentleman well qualified for so pleasing a task. In this pursuit he passed some years, which he declared were the happiest of his life.

With partiality for the dead languages, be was sensible to the vigour and copiousness of his own: he translated Juvenal into English, and enriched it with many notes, but it was never printed. He published a little poem, entitled " Quash/, or the Coal-black Maid," a pathetic West India story. He lived in the style of a gentleman, and left a handsome sum to his children.

NATURALISTS CALENDAR.

Mean Temperature ... 3d • 92.

jfelmiarp 11.

CHR0N0L0CY

1763. William Shenstone, the poet, died at his celebrated residence the Leasowes, near Hagley, in Worcestershire He was born at Hales Owen, Shropshire, in 1714.

Naturalists' Calendar. Mean Temperature ... 40 • 00.

jfclmiarp 12.

1826.—First Sunday in Lent. The communion service of the church of England for the Sundays in Lent, was extracted from (he offices appointed for these Sundays by the missal of Saruin, excepting the collect for the first Sunday, which was composed by the compilers of the liturgy, and also excepting the gospel for the second Sunday

NATURALISTS CALENDAR.

Mean Temperature ... 38 • 37.

jfrijntarj? 13.

Valentine's Eve.

1826. Hilary term ends. Cambridge term begins.

Valentine's Eve At Swaffhah.

For the Every-Day Book.

At Swaffham in Norfolk it is customary to send valentines on this evening. Watching for a convenient opportunity, the door is slyly opened, and the valentine, attached to an apple or an orange, is thrown in; a loud rap at the door immediately follows, and the offender, taking to his heels, is off instantly. Those in the house, generally knowing for what purpose the announcing rap was made, commence a search for the juvenile billet doux: in this manner, numbers are disposed of by each youth. By way of teasing the person who attends the door, a white oblong square, the size of a letter, is usually chalked on the step of the door, and, should an attempt be made to pick it up, great amusement is thus afforded to some of the urchins, who are generally watching. K.

NATURALISTS CALENDAR.

Mean Temperature . . . ')8 ■ 10.

Jftimtarp 14.

OLD CANDLEMAS DAT.

Valentine.

Referring to vol. i. from p. 215 to 230, for information concerning the origin of this festival of lovers, and the manner wherein it is celebrated, a communication is subjoined concerning a custom now observed in Norfolk.

Talehtine's DAY AT LYNN.

For the Every-Day Book. Independent of the homage paid to St. Valentine on this day at Lynn, (Norfolk,) it is in other respects a red-letter day amongst all classes of its inhabitants, being the commencement of its great annual mart. This mart was granted by a charter of Henry VIII., in the twentyseventh year of his reign, "to begin on the day next after the feast of the purification of the blessed virgin Mary, and to continue six days next following," (though now it is generally prolonged to a fortnight.) Since the alteration of the style, in 1752, it has been proclaimed on Valentine's day. About noon, the mayor and corporation, preceded by a band of music, and attended by twelve decrepit old men, called from their dress "Red coats," walk in procession to proclaim the mart, concluding by opening the antiquated, and almost obsolete court of "Piepowder." Like most establishments of this nature, it is no longer attended for the purpose it was first granted, business having yielded to pleasure and amusement. Formerly Lynn mart and Stourb-idge (Stirbitch) fair,* were the only places where small traders in this and the adioining counties, supplied themselves with their respective goods. No transactions of this nature now take place, and the only remains to be perceived, are the "mart prices," still issued by the grocers. Here trie thrifty housewives, for twenty

miles round, laid in their annual store of soap, starch, See, and the booth of "Green" from Limehouse, was for three generations the emporium of such art; cles; but these no longer attend. A great deal of money is however spent, as immense numbers of persons assemble from all parts. Neither is their any lack of incitements to unburthen the pockets: animals of every description, tame and wild, giants and dwarfs, tumblers, jugglers, peep-shows, 8cc, all unite their attractive powers, in sounds more discordant than those which annoyed the ears of Hogarth's "enraged musician."

"The year 1706 proved particularly unfortunate to some of the inhabitants of Marshland who visited the mart. On the evening of February 23, eleven persons, returning from the day's visit, were drowned by the upsetting of a ferryboat; and on the preceding day a man from Tilney, going to see the wild beasts, and putting his hand to the lion's mouth, had his arm greatly lacerated, and narrowly escaped being torn to pieces.

In the early part of the last century, an old building, which, before the reformation, had been a hall belonging to the guild of St. George, after being applied to various uses, was fitted up as a theatre, (and by a curious coincidence, where formerly had doubtless been exhibited, as was customary at the guild feasts, religious mysteries and pageants of the catholic age, again was exhibited the mysteries and pageants of the protestant age,) during the mart and a few weeks afterwards; but with no great success, as appears by an anecdote related of the celebrated George Alexander Stevens. Having in his youthful days performed here with a strolling company, who shared amongst them the receipts of the house, after several nights' performance to nearly empty benches, while performing the part of Lorenzo, in Shakspeare's " Merchant of Venice," he thus facetiously parodied the speech of Lorenzo to Jessica, in the fifth act, as applicable to his distressed circumstances:

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