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coinmitted. But this without any prejudice to the right of ownership : for, if the dispossessor has any legal claim, he may afterwards exert it, notwithstanding a recovery against him in these possessory actions. Only the law will not suffer him to be his own judge, and either take or maintain possession of the lands, until he hath recovered them by legal means (n): rather presuming the right to have accompanied the ancient seisin, than to reside in one who had no such evidence in his favour.

1. The first of these possessory remedies is by writ of entry; which is that which disproves the title of the tenant or possessor, by shewing the unlawful means by which he entered or continues possession (o). The writ is directed to the sheriff, requiring him to “ command the tenant of

quod reddat) to the demandant the land in question, which he claims to be his right and inheritance; and into which, as he saith, the said tenant had not entry but by (or after) a disseisin, intrusion, or the like, made to the said demandant, within the time limited by law for such actions; or that upon refusal he do appear in court on such a day, to shew wherefore he hath not done it (p).” This is the original process, the praecipe upon which all the rest of the suits is grounded : wherein it appears, that the tenant is required, either to deliver *seisin of the lands, or to shew cause why he will not. [*181] This cause may be either a denial of the fact, of having entered by or under such means as are suggested, or a justification of his entry by reason of title in himself or in those under whom he makes claim : whereupon the possession of the land is awarded to him who produces the clearest right to possess it.

In our ancient books we find frequent mention of the degrees within which writs of entry are brought if they be brought against the party

If himself that did the wrong, then they only charge the tenant himself with the injury ; "non habuit ingressum nisi per intrusionem quam ipse fecit.” But if the intruder, disseisor, or the like, has made any alienation of the land to a third person, or it has descended to his heir, that circumstance must be alleged in the writ, for the action must always be brought against the tenant of the land ; and the defect of his possessory title, whether arising from his own wrong or that of those under whom he claims, must be set forth. One such alicnation or descent makes the first (9) degree, which is called the per, because then the form of a writ of entry is this ; that the tenant had not entry, but by the original wrongdoer, who alienated the land, or from whom it descended, to him : " non habuit ingressum, nisi per Gulielmum, qui se in illud intrusit, el illud tenenti dimisit (r).” A second alienation or descent makes another degree, called the per and cui; because the form of a writ of entry, in that case, is, that the tenant had not entry, but by or under a prior alienee, to whom the intruder demised it ; "non habuit ingressum nisi per Ricardum, cui Gulielmus illud dimisit, qui se in illud intrusit (s)." These degrees thus state the original wrong, and the title of the tenant who claims under such wrong. If more than two degrees (that is, two ali ions or descents) were past, there lay no writ of entry at the common law. For as it was provided, for the quietness of men's inheritances, that no one, even though he had [*182] the true right of possession, should enter upon him who had the

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nal wrong done, the second in the per, and the

third in the per and cui. But the difference is im(si See book II. Append. No. V.4 1.

Finch, L. 262. Booth indeed (of real actions, (r) Booth, 181. 72 ) makes the first degree to consist in the origi- (3) Finch, L. 263. F. N. B. 203, 204.

) Mir. c. 4, 0 24. (0) Finch I. 261.


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apparen' right by descent or otherwise, but he was driven to his wnt of entry to gain possession ; so, after more than two descents or two conveyances were passed, the demandant, even though he had the right both of possession and property, was not allowed this possessory action ; but was driven to his writ of right, a long and final remedy, to punish his neglect in not sooner putting in his claim, while the degree subsisted, and for the ending of suits, and quieting of all controversies (t). But by the statute of Marlbridge, 52 Hen. III. c. 30. it was provided, that when the number of alienations or descents exceeded the usual degrees, a new writ should be allowed without any mention of degrees at all. And accordingly a new writ has been framed, called a writ of entry in the post, which only alleges the injury of the wrongdoer, without deducing all the intermediate title from him to the tenant : stating it in this manner; that the tenant had not entry unless after, or subsequent to, the ouster or injury done by the original dispossessor; non habuit ingressum nisi post intrusionem quam Gulielmus in illud fecit ;" and rightly concluding, that if the original title was wrongful, all claims derived from thence must participate of ihe same wrong. Upon the latter of these writs it is (the wrii of entry sur disseisin in the post) that the form of our common recoveries of landed estates (u) is usually grounded; which, we may remember, were observed in the preceding volume (v) to be fictitious actions27brought against the tenant of the freehold (usually called the tenant to the praecipe, or writ of entry), in which by collusion the demandant recovers the land.

This remedial instrument, or writ of entry, is applicable to all the cases of ouster before-mentioned, except that oi discontinuance by tenant in tail, and some peculiar species of deforcements. Such is that of deforcement

of dower,28 by not assigning any dower to the widow within the [*183] time limited by *law; for which she has her remedy by writ of

dower, unde nihil habet (w). But if she be deforced of part only of her dower, she cannot then say that nihil habet ; and therefore she may have recourse to another action, by writ of right of dower; which is a more general remedy, extending either to part or the whole ; and is (with regard to her claim) of the same nature as the grand writ of right, whereof we shall presently speak, is with regard to claims in fee-simple (r). On the other hand, if the heir (being within age) or his guardian, assign her more than she ought to have, they may be remedied by a writ of admeasurement of dower (y). But in general the writ of entry is the universal remedy to recover possession, when wrongfully withheld from the owner. It were therefore endless to recount all the several divisions of writs of entry, which the different circumstances of the respective demandants may require, and which are furnished by the laws of England (z) : being

of cui in vita, and cui ante divortium : (Ibid. 103. (u) See book II. Append. No. V.

204.) for a woman, when a widow or divorced, whose husiand during the coverture (cui in vita sua, vel cui anle divortium, ipsa contradicere non

potuit) hath aliened her estate. 4. The writ ad (v F. N. B. 148. Finch, L. 314 Stat. Westm. communem legem : (Ibad. 207.) for the reversioner,

after the alienation and death of the particular te(2) See Bracton, l. 4, tr. 7, c. 6, 04. Britton. c. nant for life. 5. The writs in casu proviso and int '14, fol. 264. The most usual were, 1. The writs consimili casi: (Iord. 205, 206.) which lay not ad of entry sur disseisin, and of intrusion : (F. N. B. communem legem, but are given by stat. Gloc. 6 Ed. 191. 203.) which are brought to remedy either or I. c. 7. and Westm. 2. 13 Ed. I. c. 24. for the rethose species of ouster. 2. The writs of dum fuil versioner after the alienation, but during the life, infra artatem, and dum fuit non compos mentis : (ibid. 192, 202.) which lie for a person of full age. The writ ad terminum qui prorlerine : (Ibid. 201.) or one who haih recovered his understanding ; af- for the reversjoner, when the possession is withheld ter having (when under age or insane) aliened his by the lessee or a stranger after the determination Lands; or for the heirs of such alienor. 3. The writs of a lease for years. 7. The writ causa matromonid

(97) See Hov. R (27, at the end of the Vol. B. III. (28) Ibid. (28) B. III.

(t) 2 Inst. 153.

(v) Book II. ch. 21.
(W) F. N. B. 147.
(2) Trid. 16.

2. 13 Ed. I. c. 7

of the tenant in dower or other tenant for life. 6. mitum fuerit, ita haeredibus ejus restituant. Justitiarii domini regis faciant fieri recognitioncin


painly and clearly chalked out in that most ancient and highly venerable collection of legal forms, the registrum omnium brevium, or register oi such writs as are snable out of the king's courts, upon which Fitzherbert's natura brevium' is a comment; and in which every man who *is injured will be sure to find a method of relief, exactly adapted [*184) to his own case, described in the compass of a few lines, and yet without the omission of any material circumstance. So that the wise and equitable provision of the statute Westm. 2. 13 Ed. I. c. 24. for framing new writs when wanted, is almost rendered useless by the very great perfection of the ancient forms. And indeed I know not whether it is a greater credit to our laws, to have such a provision contained in them, or not to have occasion, or at least very rarely, to use it.

In the times of our Saxon ancestors, the right of possession seems only to have been recoverable by writ of entry (a), which was then usually brought in the county-court. And it is to be observed, that the proceedings in these actions were not then so tedious when the courts were held, and process issued from and was returnable therein at the end of every three weeks, as they became after the conquest, when all causes were drawn into the king's courts, and process issued only from turm to terin : which was found exceeding dilatory, being at least four times as slow as the other. And hence a new remedy was invented in many cases, to do justice to the people, and to determine the possession in the proper counties, and yet by the king's judges. This was the remedy by assise, which is called by statute Westm. 2. 13 Edw. I. c. 24. festinum remedium, in comparison with that by a writ of entry; it not admitting of many dilatory pleas and proceedings, to which other real actions are subject (6).

2. The writ of assise29is said to have been invented by Glanvil, chief jusuce to Henry the Second (c); and, if so, it seems to owe its introduction to the parliament held at Northampton, in the twenty-second year of that prince's reign; when justices in eyre were appointed to go round the king, dom in order to take these assises : and the assises themselves (particularly those of mort d'ancestor and novel disseisin) were clearly pointed out and described (d). As a writ of entry "is a real ac- [*185] tion,30 which disproves the title of the tenant by shewing the unlawsul commencement of his possession ; so an assise is a real action, which proves the title of the demandant merely by shewing his, or his ancestor's possession (e); and these two remedies are in all other respects so totally alike, that a judgment or recovery in one is a bar against the other ; so that when a man's possession is once established by either of these possessory actions, it can never be disturbed by the saine antagonist in any other of them. The word assise is derived by sir Edward Coke (f ) from the Latin assiden, to sit together: and it signifies, originally, the jury who try the cause, and sit together for that purpose. By a figure, it is now made to signify the court or jurisdiction, which summons this jury together by a commission of assise, or ad assisas capiendas ; and hence the judicial asprazloculii : (Thid. 205.) for a woman who giveth gales homines, qualem sinam defunctus inde la land to a man in fee or for life, to the intent that he buit, die qua fuit vivus et mortuus ; et, sicut recog


de disseisinis factis super assisam, a lempore quo (b) Booth, 262.

dominus rez venit in Angliam prorime post pacem (e) Mirror, c. 2. 25.

factam inter ipsum et regem filium suum. (Spelm (d) 9. Si dominus feodi negat haeredibus de functi saisinam ejusdem feodi, justitiarii domini (e) Finch. L. 284. regis faciant inde fieri, recognitionem per rii le- (f) | Inst. 153.

Scc Hov. n. (29) at the end of the Vol. B tu. (30) Ibid 130 B. III.

6 10

may marry her, and he doth not. And the like in case of other deforcements.

(a) Gilb. Ten. 42.

Cod. 330.)


semblies held by the king's commission in every county, as well to take these writs of assise, as to try causes at nisi prius, are termed in common speech the assises. By another somewhat similar figure, the name of assise is also applied to this action, for recovering possession of lands; for the reason, saith Littleton (g), why such writs at the beginning were called assises, was, for that in these writs the sheriff is ordered to summon a jury, rassise; which is not expressed in any other original writ (h).

This remedy, by writ of assise, is only applicable to two species of injury by ouster, viz. abatement, and a recent or novel disseisin. If the abatement happened upon the death of the demandant's father or mother, brother or sister, uncle or aunt, nephew or niece, the remedy is by an assise of mort d'ancestor, or the death of one's ancestor. This writ directs the sheriff to 1 summon a jury or assise, who shall view the land in question, and re

cognize whether such ancestor was seised thereof on the day of his death, and whether the demandant be the next heir (i): soon after which the

judges come down by the king's commission to take the recogni. [*186] tion of assise: when, if *these points are found in the affirmative,

the law immediately transfers the possession from the tenant to the demandant. If the abatement happened on the death of one's grandfather or grandmother, then an assise of mort d'ancestor no longer lies, but a writof ayle or de avo : if on the death of the great-grandfather or greatgrandmother, then a writ of besayle, or de proavo : but if it mounts one dègree higher, to the tresayle, or grandfather's grandfather, or if the abatement happened upon the death of any collateral relation, other than those before mentioned, the writ is called a writ of cosinage, or de consanguineo (k). And the same points shall be inquired of in all these actions ancestrel, as in an assise of mort d'ancestor; they being of the very same nature (1): though they differ in this point of form, that these ancestrel writs (like all other writs of praecipe) expressly assert a title in the demandant, (viz. the seisin of the ancestor at his death, and his own right of inheritance,) the assise asserts nothing directly, but only prays an inquiry whether those points be so (m). There is also another ancestrel writ, denominated a nuper obiit, to establish an equal division of the land in question, where, on the death of an ancestor, who has several heirs, one enters and holds the others out of possession (r). But a man is not allowed to have any of these actions ancestrel for an abatement consequent on the death of any collate. ral relation, beyond the fourth degree (o); though in the lineal ascent he may proceed ad infinitum (p). Forthere must be some boundary ; else the privilege would be universal, which is absurd : and therefore the law pays no regard to the possession of a collateral ancestor, who was no nearer than the fifth degree.

It was always held to be law (9), that where lands were devisable in a man's last will

by the custom of the place, there an assise of mort d'ancestor did not lie. For, where lands were so devisable, the right of possession could never be determined by a process, which inquired only of these two

a points, the seisin of the ancestor, and the heirship of the demandant.

And hence it may be reasonable to conclude, that when the "*187] *statute of wills, 32 Hen. VIII. c. 1. made all socage lands devis.

(n) F. N. B. 197. Finch, L. 208. (0) F. N. B. 195. Finch, L. 290.

(p) Fitzh. Abr. tit. cosinage, 15. (k) Finch, L. 266, 267.

(9) Bracton, l. 4. de assis. mortis antece scrit, a b) Stat. Westm 2. 13 Edw. I. c. 20.

13, 3. F. N. B. 196. (m 2 Inst. 309

(31) See Hov. n. (31) at the end of the Vol. B. III.

(8) 6 234.
(A) Co. Litt. 159.

(0) Hale on F. N. B. 221.

ab.e, an assise of mort d'ancestor no longer could be brought of lands held in socage (r); and that now, since the statute 12 Car. II. c. 24. (which converts all tenures, a few only excepted, into free and common socage) no assise of mort d'ancestor can be brought of any lands in the king. dom, but that, in case of abatements, recourse must be properly had tu the writs of entry.

An assisc of novel (or recent) disseisin is an action of the same nature with the assise of mort d'ancestor before-inentioned, in that herein the demandant's possession must be shewn. But it differs considerably in other points ; particularly in that it recites a complaint by the demandant of the disseisin committed, in terms of direct averment; whereupon the sheriff is commanded to reseise the land and all the chattels thereon, and keep the same in his custody till the arrival of the justices of assise (which in fact hath been usually omitted) (s); and in the mean time to summon a jury to view the premises, and make recognition of the assise before the justices (1). At which time the tenant may plead either the general issues nul tort, nul disseisin, or any special plea. And if, upon the general issue, the recognitors find an actual seisin in the demandant, and his subsequent disseisin by the present tenant; he shall have judgment to recover his seisin, and damages for the injury sustained : being the only case in which damages were recoverable in any possessory actions at the cornmon law (u); the tenant being in all other cases allowed to retain the intermediate profits of the land, to enable him to perform the feodal service. But costs and damages were annexed to many other possessory actions by the statutes of Marlberge, 52 Hen. III. c. 16. and Gloucester, 6 Edw. I. c. 1. And *to prevent frequent and vexatious disseisins, it is enacted by the [*188] statute of Merton, 20 Hen. III. c. 3, that if a person disseised recover seisin of the land again by assise of novel disseisin, and be again disseised of the same tenements by the same disseisor, he shall have a writ of re-disseisin ; and if he recover therein, the re-disseisor shall be imprisoned; and by the statute of Marlberge, 52 Hen. III. c. 8, shall also pay a fine to the king : to which the statuie Westm. 2. 13 Edw. I. c. 26. hath superadded double damages to the party aggrieved. In like manner, by the same statute of Merton, when any lands or tenements are recovered by assise of mort d'ancestor, or other injury, or any judgment of the court, if the party be afterwards disseised by the same person against whom judgment was obtained, he shall have a writ of post-disseisin against him; which subjects the post-disseisor to the same penalties as a re-disseisor. The reason of all which, as given by sir Edward Coke (w), is because such proceeding is a contempt of the king's courts, and in despite of the law ; or, as Bracton more fully expresses ii(2), “talis qui ita convictus fuerit, dupliciter delinquit contra regem : quia facit disseisinam et roberiam contra pacem suam ; et etiam ausu temerario irrita fucit ea, quae in curia domini regis rite acta sunt: el propter duplex delictum merito sustinere debet poenam duplicalam."

In all these possessory actions there is a time of limitation3?settled, bevond which no man shall avail himself of the possession of himself or his ancestors, or take advantage of the wrongful possession of his adversary. For, if he be negligent for a long and unreasonable time, the law resuses afterwards to lend him any assistance, to recover the possession merelv. (s) Sec ! Leon. 267. (6) Booth, 211. Bract. 4. 1. 19, 07. 3) F. N. B. 177.

(*) 1. 4, c. 49. Vol. II. 132 Sec Hov. n. (32) at the end of the Vol. B. IU.


(u) Bract. 187. Stat. Marlb, c. 16
(w) 2 Inst. 83, 84.

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