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his party, 107.-Executed, 108.—Destruction, by the Revolution, of all its supporters, 112.-Manner in which the public mind is corrupted, 114.-Inefficacy of juries, 115.—Robespierre the incarnation of the Revolution, ib.— Errors of his principles, 116.--Cause of the atrocities of the Revolution, ib. Character of the Jacobins, 117.
CHAPTER XVI.—CAMPAIGN OF 1794. Effects of the Revolution on the strength of France, 120.—Her navy, 121.
Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, ib.--Trials for treason, 122.-Discussion on the war, 125.--Supplies for the year 1794, 127.–British conquests in the West Indies, ib.--St Domingo, ib. Corsica reduced, 128.- Battle of the 1st June, ib.—Arrival of the American convoy, 132.—Preparations of the French, 133.-Efforts to hold together the alliance, 135.-Prussia begins to withdraw, 136.-Forces of the parties, 137.-Landrecies taken ; defeat of the French at Troisville, 138.—Defeat of Clairfait, ib.-Actions on the Sambre, 139.-- Battle of Turcoing, 140.—The abandonment of Flanders resolved on, 142.-Investment of Charleroi, ib.—Battle of Fleurus, 143.-Pichegru advances to Brussels, 146.— Views of the Cabinet of Vienna, ib.—The British retire towards Holland, 147.-Decree of the Convention to give no quarter, ib.-Secession of Prussia, 148.-Operations in Piedmont, 149.-Success in the Maritime Alps, 150.-War in the Eastern Pyreenes, ib. Successes of Dugommier, 151.-Invasion of Spain, 152.-Successes of the Republicans, ib. - Capture of Bellegarde, 153.—Defeat of the Spaniards, ib.-Figueras and Rosas taken, 154.-Invasion of Biscay, ib.— The Spaniards sue for peace, ib. Hostilities in Flanders, 155.—Battle of Ruremonde, ib.—Maestricht taken, 156.-Retreat of the British, ib.-Firmness of Pitt, 157.-Austria and Prussia resolve on peace, ib.-Siege of Nimeguen, ib.-Description of Holland, 159. - Winter campaign of Pichegru, 165.-Dutch sue for peace, ib.-Revolution at Amsterdam, 166.-Dutch fleet captured by the French, 167.- Operations on the Rhine, ib.—The Allies driven across the Rhine, 168.-Campaign in Savoy, ib.–Storming of Thurreau's camps in La Vendée, 169.-Chouan insurrection, and character of Puisaye, 170.-Results of the campaign, ib.- Issues of assignats, 171.-Increase of the French forces, ib.—General reflections, 172.
CHAPTER XVII. –WAR IN POLAND. Extent of Poland in former times, 173.-Physical description of it, 174.-Cha
racter of the people, and state of society in it, 176.—Its constitution, 180.—The general assemblies of the people, 181.-The Liberum Veto, 183.-Nature of the national force, 184.—Exploits of John Sobieski, 185.—His anticipation of the partition of Poland, 186.-Democratic strife after his death, 187.-Its partition in 1772, ib.—Difference of the Polish and French reforms, 188.—Their last struggle, ib.-Character of Kosciusko, 189.-He defeats the Russians at Raslowice; Warsaw taken by the insurgents, 190.—The Poles in the Russian army disarmed, ib.—Exertions of Kosciusko and his countrymen, ib. Their want of a large regular force, 191.-Kosciusko routed and made prisoner, 192.-Storming of Praga and Warsaw by Suwarroff, 193.–Sensation produced by the fall of Poland, ib.—Real cause of its ruin, 194.-Contrast afforded by the growth of Russia, ib.—Gallant spirit of the exiled Polish bands, 195.
- Comparison of Polish with English history, ib. Retribution on the partitioning powers, ib.
CHAPTER XVIII.—CAMPAIGN OF 1795. Peace between France and Russia, 196.—Effects of the successes of France,
197.—State of the empire, Oct. 1794; treaty between Holland and France, ib.--Fresh treaty between Austria and Great Britain, 198.—Efforts of Great Britain to maintain the war; land and sea forces, and supplies, and treaty
with Russia, ib.—Arguments against and for the war, ib.-Exhausted state of France, 200.—Naval operations, ib.--War in the Maritime Alps, ib. Battle of Loano, 202.—War in Spain, 203.-Accession of Spain to the treaty of Bale, 204.—Pacification of La Vendée, ib.—Expedition to Quiberon, 205.-Seafight at Belleisle, ib.-Defeat of the Quiberon expedition, 208. —Noble conduct and death of Sombreuil and the Royalist prisoners, 210.-Decline of the Royalist cause in the west of France, 211.-War on the Rhine, ib.-Fall of Luxemburg, 212.--Negotiations between Pichegru and the Allies, ib.-Forces of the Austrians on the Rhine, which the Republicans cross, 213.—Measures of Clairfait in defence, ib.—The Republicans driven from before Mannheim, 214.-Capitulation of Mannheim, and Pichegru driven behind the Quiech, 215.-Capture of the Cape of Good Hope, ib. ---Results of the campaign, ib.
CHAPTER XIX.-FRENCH REPUBLIC--FROM THE FALL OF ROBESPIERRE
TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DIRECTORY. Effect of mourning on nations, 217.-Transports which the fall of Robespierre
occasioned, 218.-Fall of the Committee of Public Salvation, 219.—The Thermidorians, ib.-Death of Fouquier Tinville, 220.-Denunciation of the Jacobin leaders, 221.-Rise of the Jeunesse Dorée, ib.Trial of the prisoners from Nantes, ib.-Execution of Carrier, 223.-Return to humanity, ib.-Public manners, ib.—Abrogation of the Revolutionary measures, 224.-Impeachment of the Jacobin leaders, 225.—Distress in France, ib.-Revolt, ib.-Defeat of the insurgents, 226.-Humanity of the Thermidorians, ib.-Fate of the Jacobin leaders, 227.-Renewed efforts of the Jacobins, 228.—Insurrection of the 20th May, ib.—Condemnation of Romme and the Jacobin remnant, 231.Condemnation of Féraud's murderer-disarming of the Faubourg St Antoine, ib.—Difficulty in contracting the assignats, 232.-Scarcity in Paris, 233. -Depreciation in the assignats, ib.—Changes in the laws, 234.—Abolition of the Revolutionary Tribunal, 235.-New constitution, ib.-Reaction in the south of France, ib.—The Duke of Orleans' younger sons, 236.-Death of the Dauphin, and liberation of the Duchess d'Angoulême, 237.--Captivity of Lafayette, éb.—The constitution of the Directory, 238. —Coalition of Royalists with the national guard, 239.-Appointment of Buonaparte, 241 : defeat of the sections, 242.- Establishment of military despotism, ib.-Humanity of the Convention, ib.—Election of the Council of Ancients and the Five Hundred, ib.—The history of the Convention, 243.-The history of the Revolution and the causes of its disasters, ib.
CHAPTER XX.-RISE OF NAPOLEON, AND CAMPAIGN OF 1796 IN ITALY. Parentage of Napoleon, 246.-His early character, &c., 247.-Enters the army
249.-His appearance, 250.—His first services, ib. His first acquaintance with Junot, ib. - and with Duroc, 251.-Attached to Dumorbion's army, ib. Is arrested and liberated, 252.—His life in Paris, ib.—Commands on the 13th Vendemiaire, 253.- History of Murat, 254.-Napoleon's marriage with Josephine, 255.— Receives the command of the Army of Italy, 256.- Description of Italy, ib.-Interest of Rome, 261.-Character of the people, 265.—The Plain of Lombardy, ib.-State of the French army, 266.-Its Officers : Berthier, 267—Massena, 268-Augereau, ib.-Serrurier, 269.-State of the allied forces, 270.-Napoleon's proclamation and plan of the campaign, ib.-- Battle of Montenotte, ib.-Action at Millesimo, 272—and at Dego, ib.-Early history of Lannes, ib.-Actions of Serrurier with Colli, 273.-Consternation of the court, ib.-Armistice, 275.—Treaty of peace, ib.--Designs of Napoleon, 276.-Action at Fombio, 277.–Capitulation of the Grand-duke of Parma : commencement of the spoliation of works of art, ib.—Passage of the bridge of Lodi, 278.-Napoleon enters Milan, 279,-French contributions, 280,--The Direc
tory order Napoleon to march to Rome, 281.—Insurrection at Pavia, 282. Storm and sack of that city, ib. Napoleon enters the Venetian territory, 283.—Debates in the Venetian Senate, ib.—Perfidy of Napoleon, 284.—Massena enters Verona, ib.— Blockade of Mantua, 285.—Castle of Milan taken; Genoese fiefs subdued; Napoleon enters Modena and Bologna, 286.-Submission of the Pope, and measures against Genoa, ib.-Seizure of Leghorn, 287. -Massacre at Lugo, ib.-Napoleon's measures to bring on a rupture with Venice, ib.--Efforts for the relief of Mantua, 288.—The theatre of war, ib.Positions of the French, and Austrian plan of attack, 289.—Peril of Napoleon, ib. Battle of Lonato, 290.-Augereau at Castiglione, 291.–Battle of Medola, 292.—Blockade of Mantua resumed; the Polish legion, 293.-Wurmser again advances, 294.-Defeat of Davidovich near Calliano, ib.-Action near Primolano, 295.-Wurmser defeated near Bassano, ib.—He throws himself into Mantua, 296.-History of Marmont, note, ib.--Álvinzi again advances, 298.—Defeat of Vaubois, ib.-Napoleon defeated at Caldiero, 299.-His new designs, 300.–Battle of Arcola, 301.-Operations of Davidovich, 303.-Efforts of the Austrians, ib.—Mission of Clarke to negotiate, 304.—Distress of Mantua, ib. -Battle of Rivoli, 306.-Surrender of Provera, 308.--History of Victor, note. ib.-Spirit in the Austrian dominions, 309.-Surrender of Mantua, ib. Treaty of Tolentino, 310.-Yiews of the Directory in this treaty, ib.-Retrospect of the campaign, ib Composition of the French army, 311.—Great genius of Napoleon, 312.--Cause of the disasters of the Austrians, ib. State of the Italians, 313.—Tenacity of the Austrians, ib.
CHAPTER XXI.--CAMPAIGN OF 1796 IN GERMANY. Difficulties of the French government, 314.-Alliance of Great Britain, Rus
sia, and Austria, 315.- Division of opinion in England on the war, ib. Violence of parties, ib.—Attempt to assassinate the king, ib. Arguments on the war, 316.-Supplies voted, 317.-Bills against public meetings, ib.—The Opposition withdraw, 318.- Proposals for peace, 319.-Operations of Hoche in La Vendée : his character, ib. Successes of Charette and Stoffet : death of the latter, 321.-Conduct of Charette, ib.—He is taken prisoner, 322.-His death and character, ib.—Termination of the war, 323.-The Archduke Charles put at the head of the army in Germany, ib.-Forces on the Rhine, 324.- Plans of the Austrians, ib.—of the Republicans, 325.—History of Kleber, note, ib.—of Soult, note, ib.-- They cross the Lower Rhine, ib.— Are driven back, 326.—History of Moreau, 327--of Desais, note, 328–of St Cyr, note, ib.
-Passage of the Rhine by Moreau, 329.- Actions on the Murg, 330.- The Archduke retires through the Black Forest, 332.—Operations on the Lower Rhine, ib.- Plan of the campaign by the Directory, ib. ---Plan of the Archduke, 333.–Action at Neresheim, 334. -Jourdan advances into Franconia, ib. The Archduke defeats Jourdan at Amberg, 335.--History of Ney, note, ib. - Jourdan again routed, 336.- Retreat of Jourdan, ib.— The Archduke again defeats him, 337.-History of Marceau, note, ib.—Struggle of Latour with Moreau, 338.-Moreau retreats, 339—and defeats Latour at Biberach, 340.Retires through the Black Forest, ib.—Battle of Emmendingen, ib.—Moreau driven across the Rhine, 341.—The Austrians refuse an armistice, ib.-Siege of Kehl, ib.-Fall of the tête-de-pont at Huningen, 342.-Reflections on this campaign, ib.—Contributions levied in Germany, 343.—Spirit of the Austrian people, ib.—Convention between France and Prussia, ib. —Naval operations 344.--Successes of the English, 345.—State of St Domingo, ib.—Treaty of St Ildefonso, 346.--Overture for a general peace by Great Britain, 347.-State of Ireland, 348.-Designs of the Directory, 349.- Preparations of the British government, 350.- The expedition is dispersed by tempests, ib.-Death and character of the Empress Catherine, 351.-Retirement of Washington : his character, 352.
HISTORY OF EUROPE.
REIGN OF TERROR: FROM THE FALL OF THE GIRONDISTS TO THE DEATH OF
DANTON.—JUNE 2, 1793—MARCH 31, 1794.
1. “THE rule of a mob,” says Aris- | for the securing of their authority. Meatotle, “is the worst of tyrannies ;" * and sures dictated by the dread of indiviso experience has proved it, from the duals become unnecessary when they caprice of the Athenian democracy to have perished; those levelled against the proscriptions of the French Revolu- the influence of classes require to be tion. The reason is one which always pursued till the class itself is destroyed. holds, and must remain unaltered while 2. It was not a mere thirst for blood society remains. In contests for power, which made Marat and Robespierre dea monarch has, in general, to dread only clare and act upon the principle, that the efforts of a rival for the throne; an there could be no security for the Rearistocracy, the ascendancy of a faction public till two hundred and sixty thouin the nobility; the populace, the ven- sand heads had fallen. Hardly any men geance of all the superior classes in the are cruel for cruelty's sake; the leaders state. Hence, the safety of the first is of the Jacobins were not more so than usually secured by the destruction of a the reckless and ambitious of any other singlerival and his immediate adherents; country would be, if exposed to the inthe jealousy of the second extinguished fluence of similar passions. Ambition by the proscription or exile of a limited is the origin of desperate measures, benumber of families; but the terrors of cause it renders men sensible only of the last require the destruction of whole the dictates of an insatiable passion : ranks in society. They constantly feel terror is the most common source of that, if they do not destroy the superior cruelty. Men esteem the lives of others classes in the state, they will, in the long lightly when their own are at stake. run, fall again under their influence, The revolutionary innovations being and their leaders in consequence be sub-directed against the whole aristocratic jected to punishment. Aence the en- and influential classes, their vengeance venomed and relentless animosity by I was felt to be implacable, and no secuwhich they are actuated towards them. rity could be expected to the democratic Similar feelings are not experienced in leaders, till their whole opponents were nearly the same degree by the holders destroyed. Thence the incessant, and of property on the resumption of power, often ridiculous, dread of a counter because they are not felt to be necessary revolutionary movement, which was
evinced by the democratic party, and *« Toutou run Tugavviòa TEASUTUIG onko xgatid."-ARISTOTLÉ, De Politica.
which so often impelled them into the VOL. III.
most sanguinary measures, when there | taneous; the result of a universal mowas in reality no danger to be appre- ral conviction; and the Mountain, itself hended.* In the strife of contending feeble and irresolute, showed that it had classes, the sphere of individual ven- no hand in producing it. The insurgeance was fearfully augmented. Not rection was a great moral and popular one, but fifty leaders had terrors to al effort, worthy of the enlightened peolay, rivals to extinguish, hatred to gra- ple among whom it arose. The people tify. Amidst the contests for influence, of Paris have afforded an example which and the dread of revenge, every man may well make all the monarchs of the sacrificed his individual to his political earth tremble, and silence the calumconnexions: private friendship, public nies they pour forth against us. All character, yieīded to the force of per- we have to do now is to complete our sonal apprehension, or the vehemence triumph, and destroy the Royalists. of individual ambition. A forced coali. We must gain possession of the comtion, between the most dissimilar cha- mittees, and spend our nights in framracters, took place from the pressure of ing good laws." Under such plausible similar danger; friends gave up friends colours did the Revolutionists veil a to the vengeance of political adversaries; movement which destroyed the only individual security, private revenge, remnants of virtue in the democracy, were purchased by the sacrifice of an- and delivered over France in fetters to cient attachment.
the Reign of Terror. 3. France experienced the truth of 4. The aspect of the Convention, these principles with unmitigated seve- after this great event, was entirely rity during the later stages of the Revo- changed from what it had ever been lution. But it was not immediately that before. Terror had mastered its rethe leaders of the victorious faction ven-sistance; proscription had thinned its tured upon the practical application of ranks. The hall was generally silent. their principles. The first feeling with The right, and the majority of the the multitude, on the overthrow of the centre, never voted, but seemed, by Girondists, was exultation at the vic- their withdrawal from any active part, tory they had gained, and unbounded to condemn the whole proceedings of anticipations of felicity from the as- the Jacobins, and await intelligence sumption of power by the most popular from the provinces as the signal for and vehementof their demagogues. The action. The debates of the legislature, most extravagant joy prevailed among as they appear in the Moniteur, sudthe Jacobins at their decisive triumph. denly contract into nothing. All the “The people,” said Robespierre,“ have decrees proposed by the ruling party by their conduct confounded all their were adopted in silence without any opponents. Eighty thousand men have discussion. By a decree of the Conbeen under arms nearly a week, and not vention, the whole power of governone shop has been pillaged, not one drop ment was vested in the hands of the of blood shed. They have proved by Decemvirs till the conclusion of a gethat whether the accusation was well neral peace. They made no concealfounded, that they wished to profit by ment of the despotic nature of the authe disorders to commit murder and thority with which they were thus inpillage. Their insurrection was spon- vested. “You have nothing now to
dread,” said St Just, “from the ene* So true are the words of Metastasio mies of freedom; all we have to do is
- "E in qual funesta entrai to make its friends triumphant, and Necessità d'esser malvagio! A quanti that must be done at all hazards. In Delitti obbliga un solo! E come, oh Dio, Un estremo mi porta all'altro estremo!
the critical situation of the Republic, Son crudel, perchè temo, e temo appunto,
it is in vain to re-establish the constiPerchè son si crudel. Congiunta in guisa tution : it would offer impunity to E al mio timor la crudeltà, che l'una
every attack on liberty, by wanting Nell' altro si transforma, e l'un dell'altra E cagione ed effetto."
the force to repress such. You are Ciro, Act ii. scene 3. I too far removed from conspiracies to