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active defender and professed that country, have received cons champion of the established re- siderable encouragement. By ligion of his country. The very the Roman Catholics, they have form of the new ecclesiastical been accused of partaking in the establishment of France, is infi- enormities of the revolution ; nitely more favorable to the re- / particularly of joining in the vival of Popery, though the persecution of the priests, and priests are far from thinking so, bending too obsequiously to the than the restoration of its an- ruling powers. When not only cient power and splendor would the long exclusion of the Proteshave been. The late persecu- tants from the common privitions, the present poverty, the leges of their country, but the increased parochial duties, the actual and severe persecutions higher exertions, and respecta- for conscience sake which they bility required in the clegy, ex- had endured, are considered, it pose them less to the temptations was not to be expected, that, unof their former pomp and affi der a change of circumstances, ence, and tend to render them at first flattering and plausible, more venerable in the eyes of with prospects of protection and the people.
new privileges under the new The present ruler of France constitution of the state, all of has sufficiently shewn, that he them should have been able to regards the established religion maintain the tempers of moderamerely as an engine of state, and tion and wisdom. Irregularities that he will model and direct its and errors were certainly comforms as he thinks most condu-mitted by some of their unstacive to his views. But if ever ble and misguided members in the royal family shall be re- Provence and Languedoc ; but stored, it may be readily con- many more were perpetrated in ceived, that the aspect of the their name, or laid with aggrapublic religion will be totally vations, by designing men, to dissimilar to what the restora- their account. When under the tion of the British Charles ex- present government, they rehibited, though from precisely ceived a legal pledge for protecsimilar causes.
As during the tion, and restoration of some prevalence of the republic and valued privileges, they expressed the usurpation of Cromwell, a their gratitude to the Chief Constrict and severe religion was
sul, and submission to the powprofessed, in direct contrast to ers that were, in language far this, infidelity and licentious- stronger than might be thought ness, even to affectation, became becoming men professing godthe characteristic badge of the liness, which the feelings of recourt. In France, as licentious- pose from the horrors of anarness and atheism have been the chy, and the hope of peace and boast of the republic, it is highly security seemed to have, dictaprobable that if royalty should ted. Mr. Marron, their chief be restored, it would be the fash- pastor at Paris, an able and eloion, even among courtiers, to quent preacher, is much esteemaffect to be religious and devout. ed, and sometimes c nsuited by
From the present goverment Bonaparte, who seems disposed of France, the Protestants, in
to be favorable to the Protes
tants, either from the conviction pave the way for unprejudiced of their respectability as citizens, discussion, and for the active or the desire of being supported labors of enlightened and zealby their good opinion.
ous Christians. The present Protestants in In Germany, the prevalence France, however, have degene- of sceptical and licentious opinrated sadly from their venerable ions was lately greater, perhaps, predecessors of the reformed than it had been even in France church in that country, not only before the revolution. An acin solid learning, but in true re- tive but unsound ferment, which, ligion and pure manners. Once for some time past, has been possessed of two celebrated col- operating with violence in the leges, of many zealous pastors, literary spirits of that country ; and of numerous converts and the ambitious desire, not merely followers, whose lives adorned of celebrity, but of notoriety, in the doctrines they professed, they the needy professors of so many can now boast of very few of rival universities; the seductive these honors. Their pastors effusions of some popular but have been long reduced to seek pernicious poets ; the fatal ex® instruction in divine and human ample and writings of the adscience at Geneva, a fountain mired Frederick of Prussia, the once deemed so pure and hals Russian Catherine, and Joseph lowed; but now also neglected the Second ; with the delusions or polluted. Their children of many petty Princes in the they are permitted now to edu- Empire, aspiring to ape their cate in schools of their own ap. sentiments, or emulously flatpointment and principles; but tering and supporting the bold they complain of a sad scarcity sophists of the day, from the of competent and zealous teach- affectation of being supposed
New places of worship patrons of literature, with the they are allowed to erect, and laxity of the clergy even in the are likely to increase ; and some Protestant states, and the glaramong them are sufficiently de ing revolting defects of supersirous to supply them with faith-stitious establishments in other ful and able pastors.
districts, had all combined to It is computed that there are poison the public current of about two millions and a half of opinion, and to foster widely, Protestants now in France licentiousness in principle and They reside chiefly in the south-in practice. In the late convulern provinces, and in the an- sions of Europe, the sophists cient Alsace, though they are have been disgraced, by the also to be found in considerable practical display of their systems numbers in many of the more in actual experiment; the impopulous cities.
moral and seductive poets are The most favorable prospect neglected, from the discovery for religion in France, arises of the dangerous tendency of from the spirit of toleration, for- their writings, and the introbearance, and attention to seri- duction of a better taste; the ous inquiries, which, in many princes are alarmed, if not conplaces, now prevails; and which, verted, and profess now, to deby the blessing of God, may spise pretenders to modern phi
losophy, and to encourage the inhabitants of these countries restoration of religion. The well are called Reformed, or Calvinknown attempts of Joseph the ists. The Landgrave of Hesse Second, to disperse the gloom Cassel professes the same dis. of bigotry and ignorance which tinction of principles, and proprevailed in the Austrian states, motes the interests of religion. to suppress useless convents, Though he was at one time and to introduce a more liberal highly unpopular among his toleration in religious opinions, subjects, chiefly for hiring out have been productive of some and transporting his troops to advantage. The present Elec- America, in the unhappy contest tor of Bavaria has been still more of Britain with her colonies, he active in scattering the inhabi- is now much respected, and extants of the convents, and more ercises his power for the solid liberal in promoting the inter- interest of his country, and the ests of the Protestants, and the advancement of piety and learntemperate discussion of reli- ing. The university of Margious principles.
purg, under his protection, is In the states professedly Pro- professedly a Calvinistic institutestant, a fatal departure from tion, and is distinguished by their original principles, and many respectable names, and threatening laxity, both of prac- some pious teachers. Giessen tice and opinions, have been for is Lutheran, where the venerable a considerable period too con- Koester long employed his zeal spicuous. Yet even this unhap
Yet even this unhap- to oppose the progress of false py degeneracy is chiefly confined, religion and infidelity in Gerin its operation, to the great
many ; but now, from the intowns, princely residences, or firmities of age, he has desisted the more sophisticated univer- from his salutary labours. The sities. In these, the vices which schools and gymnasia, throughso readily become the concom
out the territories of Hesse, are, itants of courts, camps, luxury, in general, under excellent repomp, intrigue, or sophistry, gulations; and the people eagerhave produced their usual fatally seek to have their children effects; and, perhaps, from the early and thoroughly taught the peculiar circumstances of Ger- principles of useful knowledge, many, already mentioned, have and the doctrines and duties of there broke forth into action their religion. with peculiar virulence. Yet,
the manners of the in the retired parts of the coun- people are not so pure; the try, the villages and smaller clergy are more relaxed ; some towns, much of the primitive of the universities have been sinplicity of manners still sub-f.conspicuous for obnoxious opinsits, much of the happy influ- | ions; the rulers are either too ence of the principles of the re- bigoted, like the Elector, who is formation, and considerable zeal, a Roman Catholic, or too indisin some parts, for genuine re-criminating and inattentive to ligion. This is peculiarly re- the manners or opinions of their markable in the states of Hesse subjects, like the Princes of Goand the Upper Rhine. Like tha and Weimar. Yet still the Protestants of France, the
there are many eminent char
Vol. V. No. 3
acters, pious individuals, great the mode of preaching in the learning, and even much rcal Lutheran churches, in Sweden religion in Saxony. The pre- and Denmark, as well as in some vailing forms are Lutheran.- parts of Germany, are addressed The Lutheran mode of worship powerfully to the heart and afis very interesting and attrac- fections, and employ strong tive. Forms of prayer, simple, language, and ardent sentiments, energetic, and comprehensive, which in England would be cal. are prescribed in their books of led Methodistical. devotion. To these, the offici- however, more than enough of ating pastor adds p'rayer's called modish courtly preachers, whose extemporaneori, adapted to the discourses are as cold and unsubject of his discourse, or the impressive, and as destitute of circumstances of his audience. the peculiar and animating docThe sermons are of considerable trincs of Christianity',
as any length, ofen devout, animating, fashionable audicace could wish. and eloquent. The hymns em. Such are the published sermons ployed, are many of them the of folitz, Tischer, Ammon, compositions of Luther himself, Zolikofer and Reinhard, though and sometimes display wonder- they are admired and extolled ful felicity of expression, sub- by many in Germany. The limity of thought, and ardour sermons of Cramer, and of the of devotion.* Their sacred celebrated historian Mosheim, music is singularly beautiful and are of a different character. affecting; though, in their large The last indeed, if they were not towns, or countly churches, their sometimes too long, and encumbands, and variety of instru- bered with some adventitious menti, Eppear unutiliable and supersluities, might be regarded theatrical. Therë ai u sume fop- as modles of pulpit-eloquence peries and scemilagly supersti-, and faithful preaching. They tious rites in sumie of their furtis, unite qualities which are seldom especially in the communivi- or never found either in Trench service and the festivals of some or Englis!ı sermons ; ardent saints, that too cbviousiv Lutruy piety, with vigorous judgment; their Popishi orizin. Put still solid argument, with powerful te discipline, tic tundency, the eloquence; a deep acqıraintance spirit of Lutheranism claim with human life and the heart much well nitrited praise, and of man, with a thorough knowlhave been pruuuctive of unspeak- edge of the scriptures, and skilabie good to the northern na- ful distribution of the doctrines tions of Luropeo
Tie usual of Christ. liyans and prayers, and tren The states which are subject
to the Irussian goverument, dis* Besides obligations of infinitely | play a motley variety of eccle. higher value, for which the Germanssiastical forms. In Silesia and (und Europe in general) are indebted Polard?, the Roman Catholic
In of their language, the rudiments of profession predominates. their poctry, and the foundation of Pru and Brandenburg, the their literature, are to be numbered Lutherans are most numerous. among the effects of his genius and his | There are, however, a very lubours.
great number of churches and
societies cailed Calvinistic or his subjccts, yet the decency of Reformed. The King himself his private conduct merits praise, professes this creed. It has in- and is certainly, in every point deed been the profession of the of view, far more beneficial than royal family for several reigns. the dazzling but pernicious exThe great Elector, it was said, amples of some of his predeceswhen upon a visit to his son-in
At Potsdam, he regularlaw, the Prince of Orange, in ly attends the institutions cf Hollar), was so struck with the public worship, and joins in the simplicity and purity of the Cal- communion service once in the vinistic and Presbyterian wor- year. Too many of his courship of that country, that he re- tiers and officers retain the unsolied to en:brace it himseif, happy impressions of the former and to recommend or promote reigns ; but there are also some its adoption in his own territo- who exlibit better principles, rics.
and sew a sinceze regard to A sad decline, since that peri- sound faith and good morals. od, has fatally appeared in the Of the Calvinistic and reformaspect of religious opinions and ed profession of faith, there are menners in the Prussian states. many churches at Berlin, and Frederick, so little entitled, in the states arcund, where the their just sense, to the names service is performed either in which the world lavished upon the Cerman or the French lanhim with its usual blindness, the guages. The revocation of the Great and Protestant Hero, em-Edict of Nantz drove many ployed every insiduous art, and French Protestant refugees to indeed arouched and avowed a seck shelter in this country, and purpose, to undermine or ex- to enrich or adorn it with their tinguish all religion in his king-industrious habits and salutary dom. Frederick Williain, his principles. Among the pastors successor, as a judicious profos- of these, the namics of Albodie, scr, has remarked, eliected, if Lenfant, Beausobre, Formey, possible, more injury to religion Ancillon, are well known, and than his predecessor. For he long celebrated. The venerable scmetimes professed to be de- Erman is at present their sonicr vout, and published edicis to en- pastor, entitled the Dean of their force the interests of religion ; College, wid presides over a tut the open irregularities of his most ustful suminary of educaIfe, not only counteracted liis tion under that name. In this professed designs, but brought college, many students, both of them, with himself into con- French and German extraction, tomp. The present King is are taught the principles of useregular and decent in his ca??- ful knowledge, classical literaduct, domestic and retired in his iure, mathematics, logic, moral manner of life, but displayirs and natural philosophy, biblical Tio energy to promote an essen- criticism and theology. Canditial reformation in the manners dates for the office of the minisof his people, or to restore the try are strictly examined in cignity and active infiuence of public, in the Latin and French religion. Though he is, in languages, and sometimes in sume respects, un popular among the Cerinan, upon their progress