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6, Cables should be of ample thermal capacity and mechanical strength for the service intended. Preferably, the individual conductors of trailing cables carrying above 600 volts should be shielded.

7. Cables should be examined regularly and any defects found in the cable should be repaired immediately.

8. Cable splices should be made in a workmanlike manner, mechanically strong, and well-insulated. Preferably, when a cable is defective, a stand-by cable should be used and the defective cable sent to the shop for permanent splicing and vulcanizing.

9. Portable transformers should be enclosed in a transformer house or by a substantial fence at least 6 feet high. The opening to the enclosure should be locked when the transformers are near a public road or if they are not under constant surveillance of authorized employees.

10. The casings of transformers, unless isolated from contact by position, and the frames of other equipment should be grounded.

11. Power should be disconnected when repair work is being done on electric equipment, transmission lines, and accessories such as trailing cables, switches, and junction boxes.

12. Cables carrying in excess of 440 volts should be handled with suitable insulating hooks when the power is on. Cables carrying 440 volts or less should be handled with rubber gloves or insulating hooks,

13. Electric equipment should be inspected daily and maintained in safe condition. Section 8. Additional safeguards for mechanical equipment

(a) Shop equipment.
1. The following should be guarded adequately:

a. Gears, sprockets, friction devices, and couplings with protruding bolts or nuts.

| b. Shafting and projecting shaft ends that are within 7 feet of floor or platform level.

c. Belt, chain, or rope drives that are within 7 feet of floor or platform.

d. Fly wheels. (Where fly wheels extend more than 7 feet above the floor, they should be guarded to a height of at least 7 feet.)

e. Circular and band saws and planers.

f. Repair pits. (Guards or covers should be kept in place when the pits are not in use.)

2. Machinery should not be repaired or oiled while in motion, unless such oiling can be done without danger to the oiler.

3. A guard or safety device removed from any machine should be replaced before the machine is put in operation.

4. Mechanically operated grinding wheels should be equipped with: a. Safety washers and tool rests.

b. Substantial retaining hoods, the hood openings of which should not expose more than 90° sector of the wheel. c. Eyeshields, unless goggles are worn by the operators. (b) Stripping and loading equipment.

1. Operators of shovels, draglines, and tractors should not operate their equipment when any persons are in such proximity as to be endangered. The equipment should be provided with efficient warning devices.

2. Operators of stripping equipment should not swing the dipper or bucket over passing haulage units.

3. Operators of loading shovels should swing the dipper over the body of the truck and never over the cab.

4. Dippers should be lowered to or near the ground for repairs. Men should not work under a suspended dipper, and no person should be permitted to ride in a dipper or bucket.

5. Stripping and coal-loading equipment should be inspected daily. Particular attention should be given to the condition of the cables. Hoist and counterweight ropes should be inspected daily. Boom suspension cables should be inspected at regular intervals, but not less than once a month.

6. Walkways and platforms on shovel and dragline booms should be maintained in safe condition. The walkways and platforms should be equipped with safe handrails.

7. Men should not be permitted to get on or off draglines or shovels in operation without notifying the operator.

8. Men should not be permitted within the sector of shovels or draglines unless in the line of duty.

9. Good housekeeping should be practiced on shovels and draglines.

10. Oil and grease should be stored in closed metal containers and in such a manner as not to present a fire hazard.

11. Stripping and coal-loading equipment should be well illuminated if used on the night shift. Tractors should be equipped with efficient headlights for the night-shift operations. Section 9. Miscellaneous hazards

(a) Lighting

1. Adequate illumination should be provided for men on the night shift. Preferably, electric cap lamps or flashlights should be used when portable lights are required.

2. Extension cord lamps with exposed metal sockets should not be used. (b) Protective clothing.

1. Protective hats should be worn by persons where there is danger from falling objects.

2. Protective footwear should be worn by persons while on duty around mines.

3. Men exposed to dust-inhalation hazards should wear permissible dust respirators.

4. Men should be required to wear safety goggles when using grinding tools and when doing other work where particles are likely to fly.

5. Welders and helpers should be provided with proper shields to protect their eyes.

6. Gloves should be worn when material is handled that may injure the hands. Rubber gloves that are in good condition should be worn by employees when doing work that requires them to come in contact with electric equipment involving shock hazard.

7. Haulage men and others who work around moving machinery should wear snug-fitting clothing. Section 10. General safety conditions

(a) Safety rules and standards.

1. New employees should be fully instructed regarding the company safety rules and the particular hazards incident to their work; this applies to both experienced and inexperienced personnel.

(b) Reporting of accidents.

1. The management of a mine should keep an accurate record of all accidents at the mine that involve an injury to an employee (lost-time and no-lost-time accidents). A record of all accidents resulting in loss of time beyond the day of injury, together with the required employment and production data, should be reported on forms 6–1420 and 6-1420a to the Federal Bureau of Mines, Washington 25, N. C., at the end of each calendar month, except that a prompt report should be made to the Washington office of the Federal Bureau of Mines of an accident involving a fatality; the district office of the Bureau of Mines at WilkesBarre should be notified immediately by the most expeditious means.

(c) First aid. 1. Adequate first-aid material should be provided near the pit and kept in clean, usable condition.

2. Instructions in artificial respiration should be posted at every electrical station, and all employees working with or around electric equipment should know how to give artificial respiration.

3. To treat, handle, and transport an injured person properly, employees should know the fundamentals of first aid.

(d) Duty and responsibility.

1. It should be the duty and responsibility of employees and management to cooperate in carrying out the provisions of these standards.

Mr. FORBES. The inspection of a mine may require from a day to several weeks, depending on conditions, such as the size of the mine, the thickness and pitch of the coal beds, the system of mining, degree of concentration of working places, and prevalence of hazardous conditions and practices.

The standard procedure for inspecting all coal and lignite mines is as follows: The inspector is instructed and required (a) to inspect every working place in the mine, all active haulageways and travelways, entrances to abandoned workings, accessible old workings, airways, escapeways, and other places where men work or travel or where dangerous conditions may exist, electric equipment and installations, haulage facilities, first-aid equipment, ventilation facilities, communication installations, roof and rib conditions, blasting practices, and so on; and (b) to make tests for explosive gas and oxygen deficiency in all mines and to collect samples of mine air and mine dusts to determine conditions with respect to gas and coal-dust hazards. In multiple-shift operations the inspector devotes part of his time to inspection on each shift. He also inspects the surface plant at each mine.

Each coal-mine inspector is assigned to a district composed of mines that he inspects regularly. The assignment of an inspection district to each inspector results in a greater

personal interest on the part of the inspector to have the mines under his jurisdiction in the safest possible condition and to keep accidents in them to a minimum. Each inspector is responsible for devising ways and means of reducing accidents in his district by discussing accident-prevention measures with mine personnel and by promoting and attending safety meetings. Each inspector is required to continue to improve the effectiveness of his inspections by:

(a) Determining the outstanding causes of accidents before he begins the inspection of a mine. This information to be used during the inspection to guide him in observing hazards and suggesting ways of eliminating them.

(0) Discussing observed hazards and means of correcting them with: (1) The accompanying official at the time the hazards are discovered, (2) the mine safety committeemen, (3) the higher company officials.

(C) Enlisting the cooperation of labor, management, State inspection personnel, and other safety-promotion agencies.

(d) Spending enough time at the active working faces to observe, wherever practicable, a complete cycle of mining operations, including timbering, cutting, drilling, blasting, loading, and haulage.

(e) Attending local union meetings occasionally to discuss safety with the members and endeavoring to enlist their cooperation in accident prevention.

(1) Participating in mining institutes, Holmes Safety Association Chapters and Councils, and similar agencies dedicated to the promotion of mine safety.

A preliminary report covering conditions and practices of primary importance with respect to safety is prepared and posted at the mine within 1 day following the completion of an inspection. It is intended to call attention to important unsafe conditions and practices that require immediate correction before the more detailed final report can be prepared. Copies of the preliminary report are typed in the field offices, and I want to emphasize they are distributed to the mine operator, the State inspection agency, the mine workers' organization, and to the Geological Survey if the mine is on the public domain or Indian land.

A final, detailed report is prepared as soon as possible after the completion of an inspection. It contains a record of all observed violations of the Federal Mine Safety Code for Bituminous Coal and Lignite Mines or the Safety Standards for Anthracite Mines, together with practical recommendations for correction of unsafe conditions and practices. Provisions are also made to include recommendations for correcting unusual hazards not specifically covered in the code or anthracite standards. The final reports are typed in the field offices, are reviewed carefully, and copies are distributed to the mine operator, the State inspection agency, the mine workers' organization, the

Joint Industry Safety Committee if the mine is affiliated with the United Mine Workers of America, and to the Geological Survey if the mine is on the public domain or on Indian land.

Section 6b of the Coal Mine Inspections and Investigations Act of May 7, 1941, provide for publishing information obtained under the act. Therefore, a copy of each final inspection report is forwarded to the Office of Mineral Reports, Bureau of Mines, where a press release, covering salient features of the report, is prepared and sent to the newspapers in the area in which the mine is located. Inasmuch as the act delegates no authority to the Federal inspectors to enforce compliance with their recommendations, the publication of information in the reports focuses public attention on the need for safer mining practices and the prevention of injuries to those who produce the Nation's coal supply.

Now, I have here a story, Mr. Chairman, of the Federal Mine Safety Code, and I think I will just skip over that. Suffice it to say that this came into being after the cessation of work in 1946 and remained in effect while the Government had possession of the coal mines, but was terminated on June 30, 1947. Thereafter the Coal Mines Administrator no longer had authority to administer the provisions of the Federal Mine Safety Code.

I have a copy of the national bituminous coal wage agreements of 1947 and 1948, which incorporate a mine-safety program.


you would care, Mr. Chairman, I would at least like to have that portion of this agreement put into the record.

Mr. KELLEY. Without objection, it will be inserted in the record. Will you mark what you want included ?

Mr. FORBES. Yes. I think it is necessary to incorporate only the part that relates to the safety program. I might also include here something which is not a part of the Safety Code, but is the Mine Safety Committee, and that has been mentioned before.

(The matter referred to is as follows:)



The Federal Mine Safety Code for bituminous coal and lignite mines of the United States, adopted pursuant to an agreement dated May 29, 1946, between the Secretary of the Interior and the President of the United Mine Workers of America and promulgated July 24, 1946, is hereby adopted and incorporated by reference in this contract as a code for health and safety in bituminous and lignite mines of the parties of the first part, with the following exceptions and alterations :

(1) The opening paragraph beginning with the words “pursuant to" and ending with the words "Executive order" is stricken out.

(2) The words “Coal Mines Administrator” are stricken out wherever they appear.

(3) Sections 5 (a) and 5 (b) of article XII and all of article XIV are stricken out.

(4) References in the code to its effective date shall be deemed to refer to the effective date of this contract.

(B) ENFORCEMENT (1) Reports of Federal Coal Mines Inspectors: Wherever inspectors of the Federal Bureau of Mines, in making their inspections in accordance with authority as provided in Public Law 49, Seventy-seventh Congress, find that there are violations of this code and make recommendations for the elimination of such

noncompliance, the operators shall promptly comply with such recommendations, except as modified in paragraph 2 of this subdivision (b).

(2) Whenever either party to the contract feels that compliance with the recommendations of the Federal mine inspectors as provided above would cause irreparable damage or great injustice, they may appeal such recommendation of the Joint Board of Review as hereinafter provided.


In order to carry out the intent and purposes of the agreement affecting the Mine Safety Code, it is agreed that from time to time joint consultations shall be had with the United States Bureau of Mines looking toward review and appropriate revision of the Mine Safety Code.


There is hereby established under this agreement a Joint Industry Safety Committee composed of four members, two of whom will be appointed by the mine workers and two of whom will be appointed by the operators, whose duty it shall be to (1) arbitrate any appeal which is filed with it by any operator or any mine worker who feels that any reported violation of the code and recommendation of compliance by a Federal coal mine inspector has not been justly reported or that the action required of him to correct the violation would subject bim to irreparable damage or great injustice; and (2) to consult with the United States Bureau of Mines in accordance with the provisions of section (c) above.

(B) MINE SAFETY COMVITTRE At each mine there shall be a mine safety committee selected by the local union. The committee members while engaged in the performance of their duties shall be paid by the union, but shall be deemed to be acting within the scope of their employment in the mine within the meaning of the workmen's compensation law of the State where such duties are performed.

The mine safety committee may inspect any mine development or equipment used in producing coal. If the committee believes conditions found endanger the life and bodies of the mine workers, it shall report its inding and recommendations to the management. In those special instances where the committee believes an immediate danger exists and the committee recommends that the management remove all mine workers from the unsafe area, the operator 18 required to follow the recommendation of the committee.

If the safety committee in closing down an unsafe area acts arbitrarily and capriciously, members of such committee may be removed from the committee. Grievances that may arise as a result of a request for removal of a member of the safety committee under this section shall be handled in accordance with the provisions providing for settlement of disputes.

The safety committee and operators shall maintain such records concerning inspections, indings, recommendations, and actions relating to this provision of the agreement as may be required, and copies of all reports made by the safety committee shall be fled with the operators .

(f) The International Union, United Mine Workers of America, may designate memorial periods provided it shall give proper notice to each district.

WOBKYEN'S COMPENSATION AND OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES Each operator who is a party to this agreement will provide the protection and coverage of the benefits under workmen's compensation and occupational disease laws, whether compulsory or elective, existing in the States in which the respective employees are employed. Refusal of any operator to carry out this direction shall be deemed a violation of this agreement. Notice of compliance with this section shall be posted at the mine.

Mr. FORBES. However, the national bituminous coal wage agree. ments of 1947 and 1948, between the bituminous coal mine operatore and the United Mine Workers of America continued the principal provisions of the 1946 agreement, and the Federal Mine Safety Code was adopted and incorporated by reference in these contracts and stipulated that the operators shall comply promptly with recommen

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