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Exhibiting the manner of applying the principles of Inflections
and Emphases to the pronunciation of written language, with the definition of those terms.
INFLECTIONS. THE inflections of the voice are those peculiar slides
which it takes on pronouncing a strongly emphatic word, or making a necessary pause. Of these there are two, the upward slide, and the downward. The first is represented by a small dash inclining to the right in an angle of about 45 degrees, thus'; the second is marked by the same character, inclining to the left, thus !
DIRECT PERIOD. Definition and Rule.-The direct period consists of two great members, commencing with corresponding connectives, either expressed or implied, and the former part depending on the latter for sense; at the close of the first the rising inflection is applied, and at the close of the latter the falling mflection.
Example.-As Columbia expects her sons to be brave', so she presumes her daughters will be virtuous'.
INVERTED PERIOD. Definition and Rule.--The inverted period consists also of two great members, similarly connected, yet making sense as it proceeds ; it is also capable of being transposed and rendered direct, by which the dependence of the parts may be tested. These parts adopt the same inflection that are adopted in the direct period.
Example.—At the declaration of peace, in obedience to the voice of the people, the General returned his sword to its scabbard', because it was in obedience to the same respected voice that he drew it at the approach of war'.
LOOSE SENTENCE. Definition and Rule.-The loose sentence consists of a direct or an inverted period, with one or more additional members. The period is read as in the above exampies, and the failing inflection is applied to each additional member that forms good sense. Erample. As you will find in the Bible all the truths ne
cessary to be believed', so you will find, at the same time, every necessary direction for the performance of your duty; this book, therefore, must be the rule of all your actions": and it will prove your best friend in all the journey of life'
PENULTIMATE MEMBER. Definition and Rule.-The penultimate member is the last limb or member in the sentence but one. As the final memher takes the falling, the penultimate adopts the rising inflection.
Example. The soul, considered abstractly from its passions, is of a remiss and sedentary nature'; slow in its resolves, and languishing in its execution.
EXCEPTION TO THE FOREGOING RULES. Whenever the member of a sentence, claiming the rising inflection, terminates with a strongly emphatic word, the falling inflection is applied; for strong emphasis always dictates the downward slide of the voice.
Example.--I must therefore desire the reader to remember that by the pleasures of the imagination, I mean those only that arise from sight"; and that I divide them into two kinds'. .
SERIES. Definition.--Series implies that succession of similar or opposite particulars, or portions of a sentence, whether single double, triple, or compound, or whatever other variety they may assume, which frequently commence or close a com pound sentence. These may be divided into
1st, The Simple Series ;
SIMPLE SERIES. Definition.--The simple series consists of two or more single particulars, following each other in succession, either in commencing or closing a sentence.
RULE 1.-When the sentence commences with two particulars, the 1st takes the, and the 2d the inflection.
Example.--Manufactures and agriculture', give steady em. ployment to thousands of the poorer order!
RULE 2. When the sentence closes with two single particulars, the 1st takes the', and the 2d the inflection.
Example.-Example is generally more forcible than pre cept or discipline!"
RULE 3.When the sentence commences with three single particulars, the 1st and 2d take the ', and the 3d the inAection.
Example. The head', the heart', and the hands', should be constantly and actively employed in doing good'. .
RULE 4.-When three single particulars form the concluding series, the 1st and 3d take the , and the ad the inflec
Example.—Whatever obscurities involve religious tenets, the essence of true piety consists in humility', love', and devotion'.
Rule 5.--When four single particulars form the commencing series, the 1st and 4th take the , and the 2d and 3d the inflection.
Example.—Health', peace', fortune', and friends', constitute some of the ingredients of the cup of human happiness'.
RULE 6.-When four single particulars form the concluding series, the 1st and 4th adopt the', and the ed and 3d the inflection.
Example.The four elements into which the old philosophers classed the material world, are fire', water, air, and earth'.
RULE 7.-When the commencing series contains a long list of particulars, they are divided from the right, into periods of three members each, and set off by the dash; the last period may be read after Rule 3, the others after Rule 4, and odd particulars after Rule 1.
Ecample of 5 particulars. Gold, silver copper', iron', and lead', are found in many parts of the new world.
Example of 6 particulars. The elk', deer, wolf',--fox', ermine, and martin', abound in cold climates!!
Example of 7 particulars.-The Amazon, La Plate', Missisippi', Missouri',-St. Lawrence, Oronoco', and Ohio', rank among the largest rivers upon the globe!
Example of 8 particulars.—Cotton', coffee',-sugar', rum', molasses, spice', fruits, and drugs', are imported from the West-Indies!
Example of 9 particulars.-Love', joy, peace',-long-suffering', gentleness', goodness',-faith, meekness', and temperance', are the fruits of the divine spirit'.'
Example of 10 particulars.—Metaphors", enigmas, mottos', parables',-fables', dreams, visions, the drama, burlesque, and allasion', are all comprehended in Mr. Locke's definition of wit.
ROLE 5.-When this long list of particulars forms the closing series, they admit of the same division, and are read according to Rule 4th ; but odd members agreeably to Rule 1st.
Example of 5 particulars. The productions of Brazil, are grain, fruits",-dye-woods', metals', and diamonds'.
Example of 6 particulars.-The chief towns in the United States of America, are New-York', Philadelphia', Baltimore', --Boston, Charleston', and New Orleans!.
Example of 7 particulars.-The Americans export from the fertile shores of their leagued domain, to foreign climes, a variety of lumber',-fish, beef', pork',-butter, cheese and flour
Example of 8 particulars. The soul can exert itself in many different ways, she can understand', will',-imagine, see', hear,-feel, love', and frown'.
Example of 9 particulars.The fruits of the spirit are love', joy, peace, -long-suffering', gentleness', goodness',-faith, meekness', temperance',-against these there is no law!
Example of 10 particulars.--Mr. Locke's definition of wit comprehends every species of it;-as metaphors-enigmas', mottos', and parables, -fables', dreams', visions',—the drama', burlesque', and allusion.
COMPOUND SERIES. Definition. The compound series consists of two or more successive particulars, coinposed of two words or members of a sentence, which though not perfectly similar, are sufficiently so to admit of classification.
Rule 1.-All the compound members which form the commencing series, take the inflection, except the last, which takes the inflection.
Example. The whole system of the intellectual powers', the chaos and the creation, and all the furniture of three worlds', enter into the subject of Milton's Paradise Lost
RULE 2.-When the compound members form the concluding series, they all adopt the inflection, except the penultimate member, which takes the inflection.
Example.-Notwithstanding all the pains which Cicero took in the education of his son, he nevertheless remained a mere blockhead. Nature rendered him incapable of improving by all the rules of eloquence', the precepts of philosophy, his father's endeavours', and the most refined society of Athens.'
EXCEPTION. The only exception to the above rule is, when the sentence commences with a conditional or suppositive phrase; for in that case the members take the inflection.
Examples. Whatever contributes to promote the principles of virtue, and strengthen the bonds of brotherhood whatever tends to calm the ruffled feelings, and regulate the passions, is undoubtedly a source of happiness'.
So, when the faithful pencil has design'd
SERIES OF SERIESES. Definition.-Two or more simple particulars, combined with two or more compound particulars, and all united in forming an independent member of a sentence, constitute what is termed a series of serieses.
GENERAL RULE.-When several compound members occur, composed of similar or opposite particulars, and forming a simple series, they may be divided according to their natures into couplets or triplets, and pronounced, singly according to the appropriate rule of the simple series; but altogether agreeably to the number of compound particulars in the whole period, and according to the appropriate rule of the com.. pound series.
Example. Forlam persuaded, that neither life', nor death'; nor angels', nor principalities', nor powers'; nor things present, nor things to come'; nor height, nor depth'; nor any other creature', shall be able to separate me from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord'. .
THE DASH. GENERAL RULE.-To those members of a sentence separated by the Dash, the same inflections must be applied, according to their nature, as would be applied were the parts set off by any other points.
Example.--In general, the manners of Mr. Henry were those of the plain Virginian gentleman-kind-open-candid -and conciliating warm without insincerity'—and polite without pomp-neither chilling by his reserve'-nor fatiguing by his loquacity'_but adapting himself without effort to the character of his company.
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. RULE 1.- Those interrogative sentences which are commenced with a verb, always adopt the inflection.
Examples.--Is justice lame among us, my friend, as well as blind'? Can he exalt his thoughts to any thing great and