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60 to 80 per cent of this amount. Credits are representative wealth and comprise a large portion of this total. Taxing the wealth and also the indebtedness secured by it is a form of double taxation which has puzzled the taxing officials for many years, but there seems to be no escape under a general property tax. When one contemplates this vast amount of taxable property and then remembers that the assessors in 1912 listed but $294,770,370 for assessment, it would appear to be high time that some reform was worked in the state laws or their administration, or both. When less than 15 per cent of the actual value of the taxable property of the state finds its way to the assessor's list, a great hardship is being worked on the property listed. Not only this, but it gives an entirely wrong impression of the wealth of the state. Instead of going into the statistical reports throughout the country, from one and a half to two billion dollars, the assessable wealth of North Dakota, goes forth at less than $300,000,000. The people of the state, as well as the outsider, is deceived as to the wealth and resources of North Dakota. Another objection is the exceedingly high rate of levy that is necessary under the law valuation. A low levy is a good advertisement but it will only be possible to bring this about when we have a higher valuation.

TABLE SHOWING GENERAL PROPERTY ASSESSMENTS FOR NORTH DAKOTA FOR YEARS 1890, 1900 AND 1910. ALSO NUMBER OF ACRES OF

REAL ESTATE ASSESSED AND PRICE PER ACRE.

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4.26 6.04 4.09 3.25 7.52 4.85 4.59 4,55 2.79 5.12 6.55 5.10 2.94 4.85 3.21 3.48 2.78 4.67 2.64 5.35 4.55 5.26 6.54 4.13 4..13 6.31 4.69 4.71 7.42 6.19 4.40

34,394.240

937,937
714,809

871,038
1,094,686

948,303 688,256 370,200 811,729 425,862 902,491 450,193 633,543 714.890 497,711

537,749 1,568,328

619,072 348,427 706,393 738,647 530.630 898,242 492,149 527,649

452,447 1,325,960 627.888 542,599 817,248 780,218

TABLE SHOWING GENERAL PROPERTY ASSESSMENTS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

--Continued

County

Real Property

1900

1890

1910

North Dakota
Barnes
Benson
Burleigh
Cass
Cavalier
Dickey
Eddy
Emmons
Foster
Grand Forks
Griggs
Kidder
La Moure
Logan
McIntosh
Morton
Nelson
Oliver
Peinbina
Ramsey
Ransom
Richland
Rolette
Sargent
Steele
Stutsman
Towner
Traill
Walsh
Wells

$ 55,863,2761$ 73,574,4941$ 184,389,989

2,845,0821 3,611,6871 7,207,005

402,345 959,891 3,373,359 2,476,243 2,182,895 4,032,369 7,392,662 10,091,028 13,796,987

594,178 1,711,015 5,185,116 1,892,106 1,617,163 3,901,130

486,255 816,293 1,978,843 530,150 823,749 2,469,113

808,516 1,281,137 2,598,381 6,304,152 6,921,913 9,453,:36:3 1,339,830 1,630,354 3,529,515

994,316 714,168 2,053,109 1,973,214 1,789,478 4,171,684

330,931 417,733 1,766,338 179,313 645,731 2,242,704 1,341,890 1,859,447 5,139,132 1,290,505 1,773,116 3,48 1,664 200,416 191,233

944,997 2,355,739 3,524,581 4,523,965 1,454,276 1,857,871 4,571,782 1,636,315 1,839,114 3,357,139 3,572,160 5,45:3,973 7,178,737

270,562 645,429 2,420,2:2 1,324,039 1,163,485 2,713,290 1,982,713 2,082,158 3,291,388 2,386,317 3,143,058 7,9:33,466

597,659 895,305 3,622,702 3,189,397 4,193,391 4,774,473 2,737,222 4,436,581 6,19:3,172

865,113 1,818,151 4,119,743

County

Personal Property

1900

1890

1910)

North Dakota
Barnes
Benson
Burleigh
Cass
Cavalier
Dickey
Eddy
Emmons
Foster
Grand Forks
Griggs
Kidder
La Moure
Logan
McIntosh
Morton
Nelson
Oliver
Pembina
Ramsey
Ransom
Richland
Rolette
Sargent
Steele
Stutsman
Towner
Traill
Walsh
Wells

$ 23,021,867 $ 26,262,466$ 51,909,379

645,515 916,434 1,550,099 258,355

709,392 1,219,162 614,856 545,728 1,068.697 2,970,658 2,594,122 3,775.068

495,850 775,665 1,265,721 781,434 570,827 1,003,481 175,6211 421,222

473.721 28.5.270 404,906 906,477 177,3281 269.804

117,140 3,152,304 1,946,687 2.377,872 387,982 519,262

914.802 196,089 190,007 592,883 305.825 518,014 1,141.523

49,819 2:35,08s 55.5.724 267,714 384,626 SOS..513 541,096 861,936 1.715,198 486,5981 722.863 1,072.6:38 53.928

109.50.51 271,647 1,447,705 1,214,882 1,108, 470

702,332 743,879 1,321.102

671,251 534,322 783,289 1.111.710 1,385,481 1,692,369 282,4031 383.302

722.021 610,135 541,996 916,871 461,267 641,853 786,163 499.219 748,188 1,576.824

180.610 480,991 956,955 1..319.0221 1,271,195 1,191.556 1,510.839 1,412,3501 1,361,460

125,317 676,857 1,003,133

TABLE SHOWING GENERAL PROPERTY ASSESSMENTS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

-Continued

County

Population

1900

1890

1910

North Dakota
Barnes
Benson
Burleigh
Cass
Cavalier
Dickey
Eddy
Emmons
Foster
Grand Forks
Griggs
Kidder
La Moure
Logan
McIntosh
Morton
Nelson
Oliver
Pembina
Ramsey
Ransom
Richland
Rolette
Sargent
Steele
Stutsman
Towner
Traill
Walsh
Wells

190,983

7,045 2,406 4,247 19,613 6,471 5,573 1,377 1,971)

1,2101 18,3571 2,8171 1,211 3,187

597 3,248 3,031 4,293

464 14,334 4,418 5,393 10,751 2,427 5,076 3,777 5,266

1,4501 10,217 16,587 1,212

319,1461 13,159

8,320 6,081 28,625 12,580 6,061 3,330 4,349

3,7701 24,4591

4,7441 1,754 6,048 1,625 4,818 10,2771 7,3161

990 17,869 9,1981 6,919 17,387 7,995 6,0391 5,888 9,143

6,491 13, 20,288 8,3101

577,056 18,066 12,681 13,087 33,935 15,659 9,839 4,800 9,796

5,313 27,888

6,274 5,962 10,724 6,168 7,251 29,289 10,140

3,577 14,749 15,199 10,345 19,659 9,958 9,202 7,616 18,189

8,963 12,545 19,491 11,814

RATIOS OF GAIN AND LOSS The following table gives the ratios of gain or loss for real and personal property for the periods 1890-1900 and 1900-1910. It illustrates many of the idiosyncrasies of the general property tax. Take for instance Grand Forks county ; real property declined 11 per cent from 1890 to 1900, but the acreage increased 16 per cent and the total valuation 10 per cent; for the same period personal property declined 38 per cent and the population gained 33 per cent. From 1900 to 1910 the value of land advanced 15 per cent, the total acreage increased 6 per cent and the total valuation of land 36 per cent, while personal property declined 22 per cent and the population increased 14 per cent.

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