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his endeavor to solve satisfactorily the problem thus presented, inasmuch as the coasts of his kingdom afforded but two available ports, Honolulu and Hilo, and both of these were situated upon important islands of the group. He might, he thought, be willing to part with one of the lesser islands; but these, he felt sure, would be of no value to the United States on account of the lack of a port.

At this time there occurred a slight friction between the two governments, which, although of no considerable importance in itself, served in some degree to intensify the feeling of the anti-American faction. The United States steamship Lackawanna was in Hawaiian waters, having been sent thither as an evidence of the good will of the government of the United States toward the island kingdom. The commander, Captain Reynolds, had been in past times a resident of the Islands, and was known to hold some political sentiments at variance with those of certain of the king's political advisers. These ministers - whether really or pretendedly does not appear — were apprehensive lest the presence of the Lackawanna betokened a possible forcible aggression upon the sovereignty of the island government. The king's minister for foreign affairs, M. de Varigny, was especially vigorous, almost violent, in his insistence that the Lackawanna must withdraw from Hawaiian waters. It was doubtless to allay any apprehensions of this sort which might be in the king's mind that Mr. McCook took occasion to give His Majesty the assurances above related. This conversation appears to have served to remove all fears of any overt act on the part of the United States, and the incident was regarded as closed.

CHAPTER IX. THE KALAKAUA RÉGIME. The administration of President Grant saw, besides a fresh movement for the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands, also, still another change of government in those Islands occasioned by the death of the king. The health of the king had long been feeble, and the possibility of his early death was hinted at in a despatch of our minister to the Department of State as early as February, 1871. Under Grant's administration the Hon. Hamilton Fish had become Secretary of State. Mr. Henry A. Pierce, long an American merchant resident at Honolulu, and one thoroughly conversant with the political, commercial, and social life of the Islands, was appointed minister to the Islands. Mr. Pierce's communication, in addition to the intimation of the possibly approaching death of the king, included a suggestion that the time for a closer political union of the Islands with this country was close at hand. This letter was regarded by President Grant as of sufficient importance to be sent to the Senate, under the seal of secrecy.

No action was

at that time taken upon this suggestion. In December, 1872, the death of the king occurred. He left no personal heirs, and he had neglected to take advantage of his constitutional prerogative of appointing his successor. From that act he had been deterred, it is said, through a superstition, in which he had been encouraged by a native sorceress, that his own death would follow closely upon such an act. With his death the Hawaiian dynasty, which had been established sixty years before, now became extinct. The right of succession of Lunalilo, by birth the highest in the line of chiefs, was universally conceded. A few days after the death of the king this prince issued an address to the Hawaiian people, calling for a popular vote of instructions to the legislature on the election of a king. Almost without a dissenting vote, instructions were given for Lunalilo; and he was elected without opposition.

The reign of Lunalilo was short, for he died scarcely more than a year after he ascended the throne. It was during this brief reign, however, that still another step was taken in the direction of annexation. In

March, 1873, Secretary Fish, in a letter of instructions of considerable length and interest, addressed to Minister Pierce, advised him in these words :

“There seems to be a strong desire on the part of many persons in the Islands, representing large interests and great wealth, to become annexed to the United States. And, while there are many and influential persons in this country who question the policy of any insular acquisitions, perhaps even of any extension of territorial limits, there are also those of influence and wise foresight who see a future that must extend the jurisdiction and the limits of this nation, and that will require a resting spot in the mid-ocean, between the Pacific coast and the vast domains of Asia, which are now opening to commerce and Christian civilization. ... Should occasion offer, you will, without committing the government to any line of policy, not discourage the feeling that may exist in favor of annexation to the United States; and you will cautiously and prudently avail of any opportunity that may present of ascertaining the views of the

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