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of Congress, the inference being that such authority had not been given. No intimation of these instructions was conveyed to the Provisional Government, either in the formal demand for the surrender of the island sovereignty or in response to letters of inquiry upon this point addressed by the Provisional Government to Minister Willis. There was great apprehension, therefore, throughout the city when the demand of Minister Willis and the reply of the Provisional Government became known. Preparations for defence were redoubled. Many families prepared to remove with their effects to the mountains; and even application was made by many of the American residents to the foreign representatives, for their protection against anticipated invasion by the American forces. The condition of unrest may be best described by quoting from a letter from Mr. Dole to Minister Willis, on the twenty-seventh day of December, 1893, while yet the future course of the United States remained an uncertainty :

“In consequence of your attitude in this behalf," wrote President Dole, “the enemies of the government, believing in your intentions to restore the monarchy by force, have become emboldened. Threats of assassination of the officers of this government have been made. The police force is frequently informed of conspiracies to create disorder. Aged and sick persons, of all nationalities, have been and are in a state of distress and anxiety. Children in the schools are agitated by the fear of political disturbances. The wives, sisters, and daughters of residents, including many Americans, have been in daily apprehension of civic disorder, many of them having even armed themselves in preparation therefor. Citizens have made preparation in their homes for defence against assaults, which may arise directly or indirectly from such conflict. Persons have begun to pack their valuables with a view of immediate departure. Large quantities of bandages have been prepared. Unprotected women have received the promise of asylum from the Japanese representative, against possible disturbance arising in consequence of American invasion. Rumors of the intended landing of your forces for offensive purposes have agitated the community for many days.


situation for weeks has been one of warfare, without the incident of actual combat. Even the ex-queen has called upon this government for protection, which was awarded to her. Owing to your attitude, the government has been compelled by public apprehension to largely increase its military force, at great expense.

Its offices have been placed and still continue in a condition of defence and preparation for siege, and the community has been put into a state of mind bordering on terrorism.”

To this forcible protest Minister Willis returned an evasive answer, giving no information about the purpose of his government in the matter of using force, but demanding that the charges contained in the protest be set forth “ with more particularity and certainty.”

Finally, this state of terror culminated in a day when, in the belief of nearly every person in Honolulu, the forces of the United States were to be landed to carry out the mandates of the President. The United States revenue cutter Corwin had arrived in the harbor, bearing despatches to the American

minister. The following day the troops on board of the United States steamships Philadelphia and Adams, then lying in the harbor, were beaten to arms. Landing parties were drawn up on the decks in full view of the people on the shore. The drums rolled, and bayonets flashed in the sunlight. The lookouts upon the house-tops, watching the ships with their glasses, could see distinctly the movements of the marines, as they loaded their rifles and adjusted their cartridge belts; and clear and distinct came across the water the sharp commands of the officers. On shore all was expectancy and resolution. The regular forces of the Hawaiian government were mustered under arms. The police force was ready. The citizens armed themselves, each one as he was able. Two Gatling guns were dragged to the wharf, and trained upon the ships of the United States.

At this juncture an officer's gig was seen to put out from the ship, rowed by four sailors. In the stern was seated a junior officer of the United States navy. Coolly and calmly, and apparently oblivious of all the excitement, he headed his boat toward

the shore, landed, made his way through the throng upon the wharf, and passed along the crowded streets of the city to the dwelling of a prominent citizen and one of those most closely in touch with the interests of the Provisional Government.

Alone with his host, the officer, to the surprise of the first, introduced the subject uppermost in the minds of all, and in allusion to the situation of the hour remarked :

“We have not yet received our final orders, and we do not know whether or not we shall receive orders to land and place the queen on the throne by force. We of the navy have no desire, of ourselves, to cause bloodshed. I perceive that you are well prepared to resist an attempt on our part to land. I think that, if such orders shall be issued to us, and our boats, with armed marines, shall put out from the ship, if you should fire a charge over our heads, we should be obliged to put back and abandon our purpose."

The officer then took his leave, and returned to his ship and the host, perceiving that the warlike preparations of the Philadel

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