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names were Tamoree and Hopu, names which are cherished, together with that of Obookiah, as the true founders of Hawaiian missions and their concomitant, Hawaiian civilization.

In the year 1819 a missionary band, intended for Hawaii, was organized in Boston; and in Park Street Church in Boston, in October, 1819, its members were formed into a church. Seventeen persons comprised this little company of religious adventurers, among them Hiram Bingham and Asa Thurston, then recent graduates of Andover Theological Seminary; Thomas Holman, a physician; Daniel Chamberlain, a farmer; Samuel Whitney, a mechanic; Samuel Ruggles, a teacher; and Elisha Loomis, a printer. These brave men were all accompanied by their wives, and Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlain took with them their family of five children. The remaining members were three Hawaiian young men, Tamoree and Hopu, and another who had since joined them, John Honoree.

Solemn and interesting religious services were held at the Park Street Church on the eve of their departure to a far-off, unknown land, upon what seemed an almost hopeless errand.


The brig Thaddeus set sail from Long Wharf in Boston, conveying this party, on Saturday, the twenty-third day of October, 1819,- a point of time, it will be noted, almost identical with the death of Kamehameha I, the breaking of the tabus, and the fall of idolatry.

At one o'clock on a moonlight night in March, 1820, Mr. Ruggles, who was sleeping in his bunk on shipboard, was awakened by a touch upon his shoulder. It was Hopu who stood there, and silently he beckoned his friend to arise and go on deck with him. There before them lay the peaks of Hawaii, their cold white summits glittering in the moonlight. A few hours later, as they drew near to the shore, Hopu was able to point out to his friends gathered on deck the valley in the familiar landscape where he was born. He was all impatience, and begged to be set on shore, that he might learn some tidings of his people. His wish was granted, and in a small boat Hopu set his face toward the land. Before reaching the shore, he encountered a native boat, with fishermen on board, out for an early catch. The party upon the deck watched the colloquy, and then saw that the ship's boat was returning. A little nearer as it approached, they could see that Hopu was standing in the boat and waving his hat, as if to convey joyful tidings. When he came nearer, he shouted to his friends the wonderful story, which we already know, that the idols of Hawaii had been burned, the tabus broken, and the people were waiting for their coming.

The company was received with a joyful welcome. Mr. Bingham, Mr. Loomis, Mr. Chamberlain, and Honoree at once began work on Oahu. Mr. Ruggles and Mr. Whitney with Tamoree went to Kauai, of which island the father of Tamoree was the subject king The king received his boy with open arms, and adopted Mr. Ruggles as his son, giving him the rank of chief. A school-house and a chapel soon arose, and the king of Kauai and the chiefs with their families were the first pupils. The strange, mellifluous language of the natives was soon reduced to writing; and Mr. Loomis, with his little printing-press, printed the first spelling-books for these simple people, eager to learn.

Several accessions to the number of this heroic band from Massachusetts came a little later, and the work of civilizing the Hawaiian people progressed rapidly. Five years after the landing of the American missionaries the principal chiefs had agreed to recognize Sunday as a holy day, and had adopted the Ten Commandments as the basis of government. A law was passed forbidding women to visit ships for immoral purposes. Crews of British and American vessels attempted to obstruct the work of the missionaries, and the house of one of their number was assailed upon two occasions by ruffians from the British whaling-ship Daniel.

The life of the same man was once threatened by a similar mob. This was in 1826. Their murderous intentions were foiled by the natives, who thronged about the threatened missionary, and protected him from harm. Still, again the same man was attacked by a gang of sailors, who attempted his life, as before, on account of his firmness in protecting the virtue of the native women.

Upon this occasion it is related that the Chiefess Kapiolani, a woman of gigantic stature, herself alone drove back

the mob, threatening to have them all put in irons if they did not obey her.

Eight years after the landing of the missionaries they saw abundant fruits of their labors. Four hundred and forty native teachers were aiding them in their work, and the spread of civilization was rapid. In 1836 so encouraging were the reports sent back to the United States that a strong re-enforcement, consisting of thirty-two missionaries, was sent out. To follow in detail the labors of the missionaries in evangelizing these Islands is no part of the plan of this work. The design is to show the operation of this missionary work in promoting American civilization in the Hawaiian Islands. It must suffice to note that, so successful was the work and so completely had this group of islands in the mid-Pacific come to be recognized as a civilized nation so early as 1840, the care of the public schools, which had been established by the missionaries, was assumed by the government.

A constitutional monarchy had arisen upon the ruins of the ancient pagan despotism. The city of Honolulu, once a wretched vil

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