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hand, although geographically included in the archipelago, had never been formally claimed as Hawaiian soil,— a fact which at this time was probably unknown to the British government.

The recommendation of President Cleveland did not meet the approval of Congress. It was pointed out that the documents showed that the Hawaiian government had not, as stated by Mr. Cleveland, requested permission to lease an island to Great Britain, but had merely referred the request of Great Britain to our government, as in duty bound under the treaty, without any recommendation or suggestion designed to influence the action of Congress. It was believed that the intent of Great Britain was to establish the proposed cable mainly for military purposes, the accomplishment of which could but be a menace to our country. It was pointed out that England has a naval station at the Bermudas, off our eastern coast, with telegraphic communication with Halifax ; that she has a naval depot at the latter port and another at Esquimault on the Pacific coast, the two being connected by telegraph and by a well


equipped military railroad. With telegraphic communication between Esquimault and the Hawaiian Islands, and the possible future addition of a naval station in the Islands, it was said that she would be in a position of great superiority over the United States in case of

Congress therefore, adopting this view, promptly declined to grant Mr. Cleveland's request.

This failure of Great Britain was followed by an attempt to compass the same result by a coup de main. As already seen, the Hawaiian government had never formally claimed Neckar Island, the rock being utterly valueless save for such a purpose as the establishment of a cable station or a light-house. A few months after the rejection of England's overtures, two men appeared in Honolulu, who were, it was afterward believed, emissaries of the British government, charged with the collection of information in regard to Neckar Island, its exact status in relation to the Hawaiian government, and its availability as a cable station. The persistence of these men in pushing their inquiries attracted the attention of the Hawaiian government,

which began to suspect a plan to seize the island for Great Britain. A counter-plan was therefore formed. A tablet of stone was prepared with an inscription claiming Neckar Island as Hawaiian soil. With this and a Hawaiian flag and pole, a party was sent out quietly, in a small vessel chartered for the purpose. It landed upon the island through the surf, not without difficulty, and, planting the tablet and the flag, formally laid claim to Neckar Island as a portion of the territory of the Hawaiian republic. This act closed the Neckar Island incident. The government of Hawaii was anxious to carry out, not merely the letter, but also the spirit of its treaty obligations to the United States; and, more than this, in this incident it displayed its anxiety to care for the interests of the United States, as expressed by Congress, even when such action was directly antagonistic to the commercial and personal interests of the island people.

So far as any formal movement toward annexation is concerned, the Hawaiian Question lay dormant until after the close of President Cleveland's term of office. The Republican


Presidential convention which met in Chicago in the summer of 1896 adopted, as “plank” of its platform, a resolution favoring Hawaiian annexation. A few months later the ex-Queen Liliuokalani, who had just previously received a full pardon for her complicity in the revolt of 1895, suddenly appeared at San Francisco, and after a journey across the continent, and a brief visit at Boston, took up her residence with her suite at Washington, in order to oppose the annexation. She made a visit to Mr. Cleveland, but found the President indisposed to enter in any formal manner into her plans. Beyond a pleasant greeting and the cautious expression of hope that her Majesty would be able to obtain some just recognition of her demands, he gave to his visitor no open sympathy. During the winter the ex-queen held a series of social receptions, which were attractive, and commanded much attention in the social life of Washington. At the inauguration of President McKinley, she occupied a prominent position in the diplomatic gallery, through the courtesy of Secretary of State John Sherman and other officials. This over,

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but little more was heard by the general public concerning her actions; but active efforts were maintained during the next fifteen months, through the employment of a lobby in her behalf. It has been stated also that the great sugar-refining interests of our country made similar and more strenuous efforts to minimize the growing annexation feeling among the members of both houses of Congress.

Almost immediately upon the return of ! the Republican party to power and the accession of President McKinley a new treaty of annexation was drawn up. This treaty was similar in many of its features to that treaty of 1893, withdrawn by President Cleveland, It differed in this particular, however, that in this one no provision was made for a compensation to the ex-queen or to the Princess Kaiulani. This omission was, beyond doubt, the result of the futile attempt of the ex-queen, in 1895, to regain her lost power by force. It should be stated, however, that the Hawaiian government, some time before, had granted an annual pension of two thousand dollars to the Princess Kaiulani.

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