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lage of grass huts, was now a beautiful and prosperous city. A race of naked savages had become a people who wore the clothing of civilization, recognized the institution of Christian marriage, had reformed their licentious habits, and had dotted every hillside throughout the Islands with churches, schoolhouses, and comfortable dwellings. A legislature and courts of justice were established; and in the process of time higher institutions of learning were founded, and suitable buildings erected for their occupancy. On the fifteenth day of January, 1842, died Tamoree, the last survivor of the little company of Hawaiian youths whose influence had been so potent in the establishment of the Hawaiian missions and in the redemption of Hawaii. He was born in a simple grass hut: he died in the beautifully appointed Queen's Hospital at Honolulu. In his sixty-six years of life he had seen his people rise from a condition of seemingly hopeless savagery to one of enlightenment, and had the satisfaction in his last hours of knowing that he had been employed as a main instrument in the accomplishment of these marvellous results.
HAWAIIAN COMMERCE. LET us now consider the history of the commercial relations of the United States with the Hawaiian Islands,- a history which extends backward for well over a hundred years. In the year 1786 the attention of Joseph Barrell, à merchant of Boston, was called to the narration of the voyages of Captain Cook; and the spirit of commerce and adventure was aroused. He conceived the idea that profit might be made by visiting the coasts and islands which had been the scenes of Cook's adventures, and collecting from the natives, by barter, the furs of the Alaskan and Oregon coast and the sandalwood, cocoanut oil, and other products of the newly discovered Pacific islands. He interested a number of merchants in his project and a stock company was formed, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars. The members of this company were Joseph Barrell, Charles Bulfinch, and Samuel Brown, of Boston ; John Derby, of Salem ; Captain Crowell Hatch, of Cambridge; and John Marden Pintard, of New York. They purchased two vessels tion;
for their proposed expedition. These were the ship Columbia, commanded by Captain John Kendrick, of Wareham, Mass., and the sloop Lady Washington, commanded by Captain Robert Gray, of Boston.
The ship was, of course, the chief vessel of the expedi
while the sloop, being of light draught, was designed for the purpose of skirting along shores and running into little bays and inlets for the purpose of trade, conveying its purchases later to the ship.
The two vessels set sail from Boston in the year 1787, amid the farewells of the people of the city, who took a deep interest in the enterprise. After visiting the Oregon coast and discovering a great river, which received the name of the ship, the Columbia, the vessels proceeded to the Hawaiian and other islands of the Pacific.
In the summer of 1790 the expedition returned to Boston, and was received with acclaim. Cannon were fired in salute, and the cheers of the people greeted the returning voyagers. Governor John Hancock gave an entertainment in honor of the officers and owners. A procession escorted the returned
adventurers about the streets, Captain Gray walking arm-in-arm with a Hawaiian chief who had accompanied the party to this country, and who was the first of his race to be seen in the streets of Boston. The chief is described as wearing one of the famous cloaks with accompanying helmet, formed of yellow and scarlet feathers, the badge of royalty.
At an early period in the intercourse of the natives with white men the traffic in sandalwood assumed a great importance. The chiefs perceived the great value which the white man placed upon this wood, and claimed for themselves exclusive rights in the whole traffic. They despatched parties of men from time to time with instructions to penetrate into the interior in search of trees. The labor was arduous, and the periods of absence from the villages and from their families were long and exceedingly irksome to the men who were so unfortunate as to be included in these expeditions. But the rewards to the chiefs were great; for they received, by way of barter, quite often the two things which they most greatly coveted,
- fire-arms and ammunition, and, in many cases, intoxicants.
So earnestly was the trade in sandalwood prosecuted and so vigorously was the search for it continued that not many years elapsed before the supply began to be exhausted ; and at the present day the sandalwood tree is popularly believed to be extinct in the Islands. It has been said that the native common people, to whom the search for sandalwood was, as already said, exceedingly burdensome, in their determination to do away with their enforced labor, were accustomed, during their expeditions, to destroy all the young trees which chanced to come in their way. Scientists, it should be added, however, who are familiar with the appearance and habits of this tree, are authority for the statement that some fine specimens of the sandalwood: tree are still to be found in the remote parts of the Islands; and it is not wholly impossible that with proper government supervision this valuable wood may yet again become an important article of Hawaiian commerce. China being the chief country for the