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lieve the native authorities of the annoyance occasioned by deserters from American vessels in the Islands, and to endeavor to adjust certain claims of American citizens there residing. The objects of this visit were successfully accomplished; and Captain Jones negotiated a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation with the king, which was signed on the twenty-third day of December, 1826. This was the first treaty executed by the Hawaiians with any foreign power.

The convention was a simple document, of only seven articles. In it the peace and friendship existing between

between the United States and Kauikeaouli, King of the Hawaiian Islands, and his guardians were declared to be perpetual; agreement was made to protect vessels and citizens of the United States, within the island jurisdiction in time of war, against all enemies of the United States; commerce and trade between the two countries was to be fostered; shipwrecked vessels of the United States, with their crews and cargoes, were to be properly cared for; citizens of the United States engaged in trade and commerce in the Islands were to be protected in their lawful pursuits, and have the privilege of suing in the courts of the kingdom; all practicable means were to be taken to prevent desertion at the Islands from American vessels, and rewards were agreed upon for the return of such deserters to their vessels; and the “most favored nation" clause, as used in treaties, relating to import duties, was inserted. The treaty bore the signatures of Captain Jones ; Elisabeta Kaahumanu ; Kalaimoku; Boki, governor of Oahu and personal guardian of the king; Hoapili, guardian of Nahienaena, sister of the king; and Lida Namahana, a dowager queen of Kamehameha I.

This agreement, curiously enough, was never ratified by the Senate; but its provisions have formed the groundwork of the friendly relations which have since existed between our government and that of the Islands The visits of American trading vessels to the island ports continued frequent.

In the year 1825, such had been the advancement of the island people in civilization and Christian morals, an official edict of the chiefs was promulgated as referred to in a previous chapter), forbidding women to visit vessels in harbors, for immoral purposes.

It is a sad commentary upon human character that this attempt of a people who were struggling forward toward the light of civilization should have met with serious opposition from those who were supposed to have received all the blessings of enlightenment. Attacks were made by crews of vessels upon the dwellings of missionaries, and the strongest influence was brought to bear upon the chiefs to induce them to rescind this edict. At this juncture, in January, 1826, the United States schooner Dolphin, commanded by Lieutenant John Percival, entered the harbor, and remained for some weeks. In February, members of the crew of the Dolphin, armed with clubs, made an assault upon the house of a native chief during the progress there of divine worship. Demanding the abrogation of the regulation, they threatened the destruction of the house, if compliance was not made with their wishes. A mêlée ensued, in which some of the combatants were injured. Lieutenant Percival himself espoused the cause of his men, and by threats induced the chiefs to recede from their position.

In the year 1829 the United States steamship Vincennes, Captain Finch, paid an official visit to the Islands. Captain Finch was the bearer of a number of costly gifts to the king, queen, and chiefs, and of a letter from President Jackson's Secretary of the Navy. In this letter the desire of the government of the United States to maintain friendly relations with the Islands was expressed in these words :

The President anxiously hopes that peace and kindness and justice will prevail between your people and those citizens of the United States who visit your Islands, and that the regulations of your government will be such as to enforce them upon all. Our citizens who violate your laws, or interfere with your regulations, violate at the same time their duty to their own government and country, and merit censure and punishment.

In the words last quoted it would appear evident that information of the act of Lieutenant Percival had reached the ear of the President, and that he desired to disavow it. The instructions to Captain Finch were to “ remain from two to three weeks, or as long as shall be thought expedient for careful cultivation of the most friendly relations, and to procure from our consular and commercial agent, or from other sources, every information respecting our commercial and other relations that may be practicable."

Two years later than this, in the year 1831, an episode in Hawaiian history occurred which required, for the first time, the friendly intervention of United States naval representatives in its affairs. This is an episode which, in its relation, is liable to misconstruction and misconception, and in which both of the parties to the controversy were doubtless open to more or less criticism. The occasion was a breaking forth afresh of ancient antagonism of religious sects. The appointment of a commercial agent of the United States at the Hawaiian Islands had been closely followed by the appointment by the British crown of Richard Charleton to the position of consul-general to Hawaii and the Society Islands. Almost immediately upon his arrival Charleton manifested an open antagonism to the American mission

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