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provision for the payment of such of our citizens as have well-founded claims on Spain, of the character specified by that treaty. This board has entered on its duties, and made some progress therein. The commissioner and surveyor of His Catholic Majesty, provided for by the fourth article of the treaty, have not yet arrived in the United States, but are soon expected. As soon as they do arrive, corresponding appointments will be made, and every facility be afforded for the due execution of this Service. The government of His Most Faithful Majesty, since the termination of the last session of Congress, has been removed from Rio de Janeiro to Lisbon, where a revolution, similar to that which had occurred in the neighboring kingdom of Spain, had in like manner been sanctioned by the accepted and pledged faith of the reigning monarch. The diplomatic intercourse between the United States and the Portuguese dominions, interrupted by that important event, has not been resumed, but the change of internal administration having already materially affected the commercial intercourse of the United States with the Portuguese dominions, the renewal of the public missions between the two countries appears to be desirable at an early day. It is understood that the colonies in South America have had great success, during the present year, in the struggle for their independence. The new government of Colombia has extended its territories, and considerably augmented its strength; and at Buenos Ayres, where civil dissensions had for some time before prevailed, greater harmony and better order appeared to have been established. Equal success has attended their efforts in the provinces on the Pacific. It has long been manifest that it would be impossible for Spain to reduce these colonies by force, and equally so that no conditions short of their independence would be satisfactory to them. It may therefore be presumed, and it is earnestly hoped, that the government of Spain, guided by enlightened and liberal councils, will find it to comport with its interests, and due to its magnanimity, to terminate this exhausting controversy on that basis. To promote this result, by friendly counsel with the government of Spain, will be the object of the government of the United States. In conducting the fiscal operations of the year, it has been found necessary to carry into full effect the act of the last session of Congress authorizing a loan of five millions of dollars. This sum has been raised at an average premium of five dollars fifty-nine hundredths per centum, upon stock bearing an interest at the rate of five per cent. per annum, redeemable, at the option of the government, after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-five. There has been issued, under the provisions of this act, four millions seven hundred and thirty-five thousand two hundred and ninety-six dollars thirty cents, of five per cent stock; and there has been, or will be, redeemed during the year, three millions one hundred and ninety-seven thousand and thirty dollars seventy-one cents of Louisiana six per cent, and deferred stock, and Mississippi stock. There has, therefore, been an actual increase of the public debt, contracted during the year, of one million five hundred and thirty-eight thousand two hundred and sixty-six dollars sixty-nine cents. The receipts into the treasury, from the first of January to the 30th of September last, have amounted to sixteen millions two hundred and nine
teen thousand one hundred and ninety-seven dollars seventy cents, which, with the balance of one million one hundred and ninety-eight thousand four hundred and sixty-one dollars twenty-one cents, in the treasury on the former day, make the aggregate sum of seventeen millions four hundred and seventeen thousand six hundred and fifty-eight dollars and ninety-one
The payments from the treasury during the same period, have amounted 10 fifteen millions six hundred and fifty-five thousand two hundred and eighty-eight dollars forty seven cents, leaving in the treasury, on the lastmentioned day, the sum of one million seven hundred and sixty-two thousand three hundred and seventy dollars forty-four cents. It is estimated that the receipts of the fourth quarter of the year will exceed the demands which will be made on the treasury during the same period, and that the amount in the treasury on the 30th of September last will be increased on the first day of January next.
At the close of the last session, it was anticipated that the progressive diminution of the public revenue in 1819 and 1820, which had been the result of the languid state of our foreign commerce in those years, had in the latter year reached its extreme point of depression. It has, however
, been ascertained that that point was reached only at the termination of the first quarter of the present year. From that time until the 30th of September last, the duties secured have exceeded those of the corresponding quarters of the last year, one million one hundred and seventy-two thousand dollars; whilst the amount of debentures, issued during the first three quarters of this year, is nine bundred and bfty-two thousand dollars less than that of the same quarters of the last year.
There are just grounds to believe that the improvement which has occurred in the revenue, during the last-mentioned period, will not only be maintained, but that it will progressively increase through the next and several succeeding years, so as to realize the results which were presented upon that subject, by the official reports of the treasury, at the commencement of the last session of Congress.
Under the influence of the most unfavorable circumstances, the revenue for the next and subsequent years, to the year 1825, will exceed the demands at present authorized by law.
It may fairly be presumed, that under the protection given to domestic manufactures by the existing laws, we shall become, at no distant period, a manufacturing country on an extensive scale. Possessing as we do the raw materials in such vast amount, with a capacity to augment them to an indefinite extent; raising within the country aliment of every kind to an amount far exceeding the demand for home consumption, even in the most unfavorable years, and to be obtained always at a very moderate price; skilled also, as our people are, in the mechanic arts, and in every improvement calculated to lessen the demand for, and the price of, labor, it is manifest that their success in every branch of domestic industry may and will be carried, under the encouragement given by the present duties, to an extent to meet any demand which under a fair competition may be made on it.
A considerable increase of domestic manufactures, by diminishing the importation of foreign, will probably tend to lessen the amount of the public revenue. As, however, a large proportion of the revenue which is derived from duties is raised from other articles than manufactures, the
demand for which will increase with our population, it is believed that a fund will still be raised from that source adequate to the greater part of the national expenditures, especially as those expenditures, should we continue to be blessed with peace, will be diminished by the completion of the fortifications, dock yards, and other public works; by the augmentation of the navy to the point to which it is proposed to carry it; and by the payment of the public debt, including pensions for military services.
It cannot be doubted that the more complete our internal resources, and the less dependent we are on foreign powers for every national as well as domestic purpose, the greater and more stable will be the public felicity. By the increase of domestic manufactures will the demand for the rude materials at home be increased, and thus will the dependence of the several parts of our Union on each other, and the strength of the Union itself
, be proportionably augmented. In this process, which is very desirable and inevilable under the existing duties, the resources which obviously present themselves to supply a deficiency in the revenue, should it occur, are the interests which may derive the principal benefit from the change. If domestic manufactures are raised by duties on foreign, the deficiency in the fund necessary for public purposes should be supplied by duties on the former. At the last session it seemed doubtful whether the revenue derived from the present sources would be adequate to all the great purposes of our Union, including the construction of our fortifications, the augmentation of our navy, and the protection of our commerce against the dangers to which it it is exposed. Had the deficiency been such as to subject us to the necessity either to abandon those measures of defence or to resort to other means for adequate funds, the cause presented to the adoption of a virtuous and enlightened people appeared to be a plain one. It must be gratifying to all to know that this necessity does not exist Nothing, however, in contemplation of such important objects, which can be easily provided for, should be left to hazard. It is thought that the revenue may receive an augmentation from the existing sources, and in a manner to aid our manufactures, without hastening prematurely the result which has been suggested. It is believed that a moderate additional duty on certain articles would have that effect, without being liable to any serious objection.
The examination of the whole coast, for the construction of permanent fortifications, from St. Croix to the Sabine, with the exception of part of the territory lately acquired, will be completed in the present year, as will be the survey of the Mississippi under the resolution of the House of Representatives, from the mouth of the Ohio to the ocean, and likewise of the Ohio, from Louisville to the Mississippi. A progress corresponding with the sums appropriated has also been made in the construction of these fortifications at the points designated. As they will form a system of defence for the whole maritime frontier, and in consequence for the interior, and are to last for ages, the utmost care has been taken to fix the position of each work, and to form it on such a scale as will be adequate to the purpose intended by it. All the inlets and assailable parts of our Union have been minutely examined, and positions taken with a view to the best effect, observing in every instance a just regard for economy. Doubts, however, being entertained as to the propriety of the position and extent of the work at Dauphine Island, farther progress in it was suspended soon after the last session of Congress and an order given to the board of engineers and naval
commissioners to make a farther and more minute examination of it in both respects, and to report the result without delay. Due
progress has been made in the construction of vessels of war, accord. ing to the law providing for the gradual augmentation of the navy, and to the extent of existing appropriations. The vessels authorized by the act of 1820 have all been completed, and are now in actual service. None of the larger ships have been or will be launched for the present, the object being to protect all which may not be required for immediate service from decay, by suitable buildings erected over them. A squadron has been maintained, as heretofore, in the Mediterranean, by means whereof peace has been preserved with the Barbary powers. This squadron has been reduced the present year to as small a force as is compatible with the fulfilment of the object intended by it. From past experience and the best information respecting the views of those powers, it is distinctly undersood that should our squadron be withdrawn they would soon recommence their hostilities and depredations on our commerce. Their fortifications have been lately rebuilt and their maritime force increased. It has also been found necessary to maintain a naval force in the Pacific, for the protection of the very inportant interests of our citizens engaged in commerce and the fisheries in that sea. Vessels have likewise been employed in cruising along the Atlantic coast, in the Gulf of Mexico, on the coast of Africa, and in the neighboring seas. In the latter, many piracies have been committed on our commerce, and so extensive was becoming the range of those unprincipled adventurers, that there was cause to apprehend, without a timely and decisive effort to suppress them, the worst consequences would ensue. Fortunately a considerable check has been given to that spirit by our cruisers, who have succeeded in capturing and destroying several of their vessels. Nevertheless it is considered an object of high importance to continue these cruisers until the practice is entirely suppressed. Like successes have attended our efforts to suppress the slave trade. Under the flag of the United States and the sanction of their papers, the trade may be considered as entirely suppressed, and if any of our citizens are engaged in it under the flags and papers of other powers, it is only from a respect to the rights of those powers that these offenders are not seized and brought home, to receive the punishment which the laws inflict. If every other power should adopt the same policy, and pursue the same vigorous means for carrying it into effect, the trade could no longer exist.
Deeply impressed with the blessings which we enjoy, and of which we have such manifold proofs, my mind is irresistibly drawn to that Almighty Being, the great source from whence they proceed, and to whom our most grateful acknowledgments are due.
DECEMBER 3, 1822.
MANY causes unite to make your present meeting peculiarly interesting to our constituents. The operation of our laws on the various subjects to which they apply, with the amendments which they occasionally require,
imposes annually an important duty on the representatives of a free people. Our system has happily advanced to such maturity that I am not aware that your cares in that respect will be augmented. Other causes exist which are highly interesting to the whole civilized world, and to no portion of it more so, in certain views, than to the United States. Of these causes, and of their bearing on the interests of our Union, I shall communicate the sentiments which I have formed with that freedom which a sense of duty dictates. It is proper, however, to invite your attention in the first instance to those concerns respecting which legislative provision is thought to be particularly urgent
On the 24th of June last, a convention of navigation and commerce was concluded in this city between the United States and France, by ministers duly authorized for the purpose. The sanction of the executive having been given to this convention under a conviction that, taking all its stipulations into view, it rested esssentially on a basis of reciprocal and equal advantage, I deemed it my duty, in compliance with the authority ves ed in the executive by the second section of the act of the last session, of the 6th of May, concerning navigation, to suspend by proclamation, until the end of the next session of Congress, the operation of the act entitled An act to impose a new tonnage duty on French ships and vessels, and for other purposes,” and to suspend, likewise, all other duties on French vessels, or the goods imported in them, which exceeded the duties on American vessels
, and on similar goods imported in them. I shall submit this convention forthwith to the Senate for its advice and consent as to the ratification.
Since your last session, the prohibiton which had been imposed on the commerce between the United States and the British colonies, in the West Indies and on this continent, has likewise been removed. Satisfactory evidence having been adduced that the ports of those colonies had been opened to the vessels of the United States by an act of the British parliament, bearing date on the 24th of June last, on the conditions specified iherein, I deemed it proper, in compliance with the provision of the first section of the act of the last session above recited, to declare, by proclamation bearing date the 24th of August last, that the ports of the United States should thenceforward and until the end of the next session of Congress be open to the vessels of Great Britain employed in that trade, under the limitation specified in that proclamation.
A doubt was entertained whether the act of Congress applied to the British colonies on this continent as well as to those in the West Indies, but as the act of parliament opened the intercourse equally with both, and it was the manifest intention of Congress, as well as the obvious policy of the United States, that the provisions of the act of parliament should be met in equal extent on the part of the United States, and as also the act of Congress was supposed to vest in the president some discretion in the execution of it, I thought it advisable to give it a corresponding construction.
Should the constitutional sanction of the Senate be given to the ratification of the convention with France, legislative provisions will be necessary to carry it fully into effect, as it likewise will be to continue in force, on such
as may be deemed just and proper, the intercourse which has been opened between the United States and the British colonies. Every light in the possession of the executive will in due time be communicated on both Resting essentially on a basis of reciprocal and equal advantage, it has