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ILLUSTRATIONS

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The Bonanza Harvester Frontispiece

Development of Wheat Plant 3

Distribution of Wheat Varieties 9

Root System of Wheat Plant 12

Organs of Wheat Reproduction 14

Coats of a Wheat Kernel 15

Cross Section of Wheat Grain 16

A Stool of Wheat 17

Opening of Wheat Flowers 20

Harvesting Minnesota Blue Stem Wheat 34

Crossing as a Cause of Variation 38

Diagram of Pedigree of Hybrid 42

Durum Wheat Districts 48

Wheat Plants from Good and Poor Seed 52

Combined Steam Plow, Harrow and Seeder GO

Typical Farm Wheat Drill 64

A Modern Press and Disc Drill 67

Typical Force Feed Broadcast Seeder 68

Forms of Early Sickles and Scythes 79

Early and Modern Cradles 80

Gallic Header 81

Wheat Header in Operation 82

An Early English Reaper 85

A Modern Self-Rake Reaper 86

A Modern Self-Binding Harvester 87

Section of a Modern Threshing Machine 98

Combined Harvester and Thresher 104

Typical Wheat Field Where Rotation is Followed ... 112

Furrow Method of Irrigation 120

Twenty Self-Binding Harvesters at Work 128

Combined Grain and Fertilizer Drill 135

Three Threshing Outfits at Work 156

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Sections of Smutted Wheat Straw 158

Stinking and Loose Smut 159

Aecidia on Barberry 162

Two Forms of Rust Spores 163

Black and Red Rust 164

Hessian Fly 171

Hessian Fly on Wheat 172

Chinch Bug 174

Wheat Midge 176

Wheat Plant Louse 177

Rocky Mountain Grasshopper 178

Grain Aphis or Green Bug 180

Granary Weevil 182

Grain Moth 183

Flour Moth 184

Transportation of Wheat on Water 191

Typical Small Storage Elevators 202

Storage in Open on a Farm 210

Wheat Awaiting Shipment by River 216

Storage at Primary Market 236

Mexican Hand Stone 262

American Indian Foreign Mortar 263

The Quern Mill 264

Details of a Dutch Windmill 266

Section of Large Modern Flour Mill 272

New Buffalo Flour Mill 278

Field of Durum Wheat 292

American Reaper in Russian Wheat 306

THE BOOK OF WHEAT

CHAPTER I.
WHEAT GRAIN AND PLANT

ORIGIN.

The Word Wheat can be traced back through the Middle English whete to Old English hwaete, which is allied to hwit, white. The German Weizen is related to weisz, which also means white. The French ble suggests blemir, to grow pale. Perhaps wheat was called white, to distinguish it from rye and other dark colored grains. Triticum, the botanical and classical name, doubtless comes from tritus, which is a participle from the Latin terere, to grind. The Italian frumento, and the similar French froment, are descended from the Latin word for corn or grain, frumcntum, which originated in frux, fruit. The Spanish trigo has evolved through French and Latin from the Greek trigonon, which has for its roots tri, three, and gonia, a corner or angle. Thus the most widely used names of the wheat plant were determined by the characteristics of the seed, as color, shape, the property of having to be ground for food, and the natural relation of the seed to the plant.

The Geographical Origin of wheat has never been certainly determined. Such evidence as exists seems to point to Mesopotamia, but this is largely a matter of opinion. While wheat has been found growing apparently wild, the doubt always seems to remain that it may have simply escaped from cultivation. However, the belief that wheat once grew wild in the Euphrates and Tigris valleys, and spread from these to the rest of the world, has wider acceptance than any other. De Candolle's conviction rests largely on the evidence of Berosus and Strabo, while Lippert, in addition to the former, also cites Olivier and Andre Michaux. Darwin appears to have favored the same theory. From this center wheat is supposed to have spread to Phoenicia and Egypt. The Chinese considered it a gift from heaven. Homer and Diodorus Siculus say that it grew wild in Sicily. Humboldt denies

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