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Growing wheat is often pastured in the fall or spring. At times this can be done without injury. On the Pacific coast as much as 10 per cent of the wheat is sometimes cut green for the purpose of making wheat hay. This practice is often followed in Oregon. After the wheat is threshed the straw is often used as fodder in the United States, and also in other .countries.

Other Uses of Wheat Straw. In the time of Fitzherbert wheat straw was used in England to thatch houses. In the Old World some varieties of wheat are grown solely for making hats and other articles of plaited straw. It is also used for various other purposes, such as packing merchandise and making mattresses and door-mats. Another great use is in paper mills, where it is at times bought at $3 to $4 per ton. Efforts have been made in this manner to save some of the straw that is going to waste at the rate of millions of tons per year in North Dakota. The problem of using wheat straw economically is no nearer solution than it was 20 years ago. In the Northwest and on the Pacific coast it is often worse than useless, because it must be burned to get it out of the way.

The Per Capita Consumption of Wheat is not an index to the bread consumption of countries where rye bread is used. Including the amount required for seed, the estimated per capita consumption in the United States for 1902 to 1904 inclusive was 6.23 bushels. The following estimate of the per capita consumption of wheat in certain countries was presented to the British Royal Commission on Supply of Food and Raw Material in Time of War, by Mr. W. S. Patterson of the Liverpool Corn Trade Association.

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United Kingdom...
Germany.
Belgium..
France..
Holland.
Italy.

Bushels

5.6 Spain.......
3.2 Portugal..
7.2 Sweden.
7.8 Greece...
3.9 Austria-Hungary

4.4 Switzerland.
II. IN EXPORTING COUNTRIES

Bushels

4.7 India...
5.5

Australia..
2.6 Argentina
4.3

Bushels

.5.3 .2.3 2.0 .3.3 .3.6 5.7

United States.
Canada....
Russia..
Balkan Provinces....

Bushels

.0.7 .5.5 4.0

CHAPTER XVII,

PRODUCTION AND MOVEMENT OF WHEAT

The United States Wheat Production.—With the development of any agricultural community, farming becomes more diversified. This tendency is already manifesting itself in the great wheat regions of the North Central States, not only in the diversification of crops on the smaller farms, but in the rotation of crops beginning to be practiced on the larger farms. There is also a tendency for even the largest farms to become divided into smaller holdings, and this will further increase the growing of diversified crops. All this diversification will tend to decrease the wheat acreage in the best wheat lands of the West. With the development of our whole country, land values are certain to rise. This is a factor of the greatest importance, for it will make certain lands too valuable for the production of wheat, while it will sufficiently raise the price of other lands now lying idle so that their cultivation will become profitable. Some wheat will be grown on many eastern and southern farms which are not cultivated at present. With the development of drought resistant varieties of wheat, the wheat acreage in the semi-arid regions of western United States will be increased.

It is probable that all of these developments will result in a reverse in the historic westward movement of the center of wheat production, and that this center may begin to retrace its course and proceed eastward, for it is probable that the decrease of western acreage by diversified farming, and the increase of eastern and southern acreage resulting from the raising of wheat on lands formerly abandoned, will more than counterbalance the increased acreage in the semi-arid regions. On the whole, it has been concluded by some students of agricultural statistics that the limit of wheat production in the United States has approximately been reached. With the future growth in population, and especially with the further development of mining and other non-agricultural industries, the home consumption of wheat in the West will be greatly

increased. This will have a tendency to diminish wheat exports from western United States, and may even divert to the West some of the grain from the Central States which is now ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, VALUE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT OF THE

UNITED STATES IN 1905, BY STATES

(In round thousands.)

1

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Per cent

32 35 24 22 36 25 22 27 27 19 23 17

0 15 22 19 29 18

Maine..
Vermont
New York
New Jersey...
Pennsylvania.
Delaware..
Maryland.
Virginia...
North Carolina...
South Carolina.
Georgia.
Alabama
Mississippi..
Texas.
Arkansas.
Tennessee.
West Virginia.
Kentucky...
Ohio...
Michigan.
Indiana..
Illinois
Wisconsin.
Minnesota
Iowa...
Missouri.
Kansas.
Nebraska..
South Dakota....
North Dakota.
Montana
Wyoming
Colorado.
New Mexico
Arizona.
Utah.
Nevada..
Idaho
Washington...
Oregon...
California..
Oklahoma
Indian Territory....

28

Acres

8

1 491

110 1,629

121 810 738 593 318 305 108

3 1,249

198 882 356

780 1,883 1,027 1,932 1,872

474 5,446

964 2,260 5,536 2,473 3,221 5,402 119

29 254 43 15 178

27 367 1,322

718 1,886 1,435

270

Bushels

181

27 10.301

1.805 27,861

1,670 13,197 8,417 3,975 1,942 2,107 1,041

28 11,118

1.565 6,349 4,373 8,810 32,198 19,003 35,351 29,952

7,893 72,434 13.683 28,022 77,001 48,003 44,133 75,623 2,843

748 6,359

948

332 4,710

724 10,342 32,517 13,383 17,542 11,764 2,703

Dollars

192

25 8,859

1,589 24 239

1,369 10,821 7,408 4,055 2,156 2,254 1,051

27 9,784 1,408 5,777 3,892

7,665 26,402 15,013 28,988 24,261

5,999 51,428

9,715 22,138 54,671 31,682 29,569 52,180 2,019

539 4,451

853

388 3,156

557 6,785 21,326

9,100 14,384 8,117 2,081

Bushels

58

10 2,472

397 10,030

417
2,903
2,273
1,073

369
485
177

0
1,668

344 1,206 1,268 1,586 9,015 5,131 8,131 5,691 2,842 20,282 4,242 5.324 13,860 12,961 11,033 15,125

995

217 1,526 227

56 1,837

116 1,861 5,203 2,409 1,403 1,882

297

Bushels

0

0 1,442

361 2,786

785 8,050 3,115 199 19 63 10

0 3,113

63 1,968

670 3,083 16,421

7,981 16,615 13,778

947 54,326

3,421 12,610 57,751 31,202 34,865 64,280

768

27 23 19 36 28 31 19 18 27 25 20 35 29 24 24 17 39 16 18 16 18

8 16 11

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United States..... 47,854

692,979

518,373

158,403

22.9

404,092

1 Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr., 1906.

exported by way of Gulf and Atlantic ports. With the increase of population and local consumption, the internal and export movement of wheat will greatly decrease, and American wheat will be a factor of declining importance in the international grain trade.

VISIBLE SUPPLY OF WHEAT IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, FIRST OF EACH MONTH, FOR TEN YEARS'

(In round thousands )

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QUANTITY AND PERCENTAGE OF DOMESTIC WHEAT, INCLUDING FLOUR, EXPORTED FROM LEADING PORTS FOR EARS ENDING JUNE

30,1884-1901. ?

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Atlantic.
Gulf
Pacific
All other..

82.757,000

676

2.061.000 31,865 000 5.737,000

17
26 0
4.7

102.780.000
10.843,000
36.833,000
9,118,000

64 4

68 23 1 5.7

57.361 000 33.315 000 2? 334.000 7,717,000

47 5 27.6 18 5 6.4

Total exports

122,420,000

100 0

159,594,000 100.0

120,728.000 100 0

1 Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr., 1906.
? U. S. Dept. Agr., Bu. of Sta , Bul. 38, 1905.

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