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other crops, and it is very likely that the growing of wheat will be one of the great permanent industries of Canada, especially as the population is so largely agricultural.'

Wheat in the United Kingdom.—The imports of wheat by Great Britain are far greater than those of any other country and approximate two-fifths of those of the world. It is this fact which gives the United Kingdom its position of unusual importance in the wheat industry. About the time of Christ the Normans made England so productive of corn” (wheat) that a large amount of grain was exported, and England was known as

The Granary of the North.” 2 At the close of the eighteenth century the average crop of Great Britain was over 60,000,000 bushels. In 1852 the wheat acreage was over 3,500,000 acres.

With the development of wheat production in the United States and other countries having great natural advantages over the United Kingdom, the price of wheat declined to such a degree that it became more profitable for the latter country to grow other crops and to import the bulk of its wheat. By 1868, less than 2,500,000 acres of wheat were grown in Great Britain, and the acreage continued to decline for over a quarter of a century. Less than 2,000,000 acres of wheat are now annually grown, but the yield is over

30 bushels per During the decline in wheat acreage the price fell in still greater proportion. Wheat imports to England began about 1846.

Australian Wheat Production.—Wheat growing has not always been a profitable industry in Australia. It has been claimed that there is less return there for the farmer's labor than in any other civilized country. Wheat thrives best on the cooler and drier lands of the southern part of Australia. Many farmers, however, have abandoned wheat raising for the cultivation of the grape vine, which is a more profitable crop in good seasons. Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia are the chief wheat growing states. The yield per acre is never large, and short crops often result from severe droughts. For this reason Australia is not a reliable exporter. The production of wheat has been increasing, however, and

1 Saunders, Wheat Growing in Ca nada, 1904.
Warner, Landmarks Eng. Indus. Hist., pp. 8-11.

acre.

2

or

2.5 Characteristics: Probably derived from Einkorn; leaves usually

velvety hairy; plants pithy or hollow; heads very compact and flat almost always bearded; threshing does not remove chaff; spikelets two-grained; non-shattering; some varieties drought and rust

resistant. 3.5 Distribution: Extensively in Russia and Servia; Germany; Spain;

Abyssinia; Switzerland; to some extent in France, and Italy; also perhaps in northern India Thibet, and in portions of China; in

the United States; cultivated in prehistoric times. 4.5 Varieties: Red chaff; white chaff; etc. 5.5 Use: Quite extensively for human food in portions of Russia, Ger

many, Switzerland and Italy as "kaska,” a sort of porridge from

crushed emmer; grist; “pot barley;" bread; also used for feed. 4.4 Triticum sat. spelta.

1.5 Name: English, spelt; German, spelz or dinkel; French epeautre. 2.5 Characteristics: Grows fully as tall as wheat; heads loose, narrow,

rather long, bearded or bald; very brittle rachis; spikelets two to five-grained; far apart in head; hardy; non-shattering; constancy

in fertility; retains chaff in threshing. 3.5 Distribution: The oldest grain cultivated in ancient Egypt, Greece

and the Roman Empire. With emmer is the principal bread grain of southwest German Empire; raised widely in Russia, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain. In Canada and the United States

it is known only to experimenters. 4.5 Varieties: Winter and spring varieties white-bearded; black-bearded;

red; smooth; white. 5.5 Use: Flour is placed in same rank as common wheat flour; fed to

stock. 5.4 Triticum sat. compactum. 1.5 Name: Club square head wheats; also "hedgehog wheat," 3.5 Distribution: Practically the only wheat of Algeria, Spain, Greece,

"dwarf wheat." 2.5 Characteristics: Little more than two feet high, being a dwarf; heads

very short, often squarely formed; commonly white, at times red; bearded or bald; spikelts very close, three or four-grained; grain short and small, red or white; great yielding power; stiff straw;

non-shattering; eary maturity; drought resistant. 3.5 Distribution: Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the

United States; Chile; Turkestan; Abyssinia; to slight extent in

Switzerland, Russia, and a few other districts of Europe. 4.5 Varieties: Generally known as “club” or “square head”; dwarf;

hedgehog: 5.5 Use: Yield the flour desired in certain localities; crackers; breakfast

foods. 6.4 Triticum sat. turgidum. 1.5 Name: Poulard or pollard wheats; English (a misnomer), rivet;

German, bauchiger Weizen; French, ble petanielle; also known as

English wheat; Egyptian wheat. 2.5 Characteristics: Rather tall; broad velvety leaves; stems thick and

stiff; heads long, often square; bearded; spikelets compact, two to four-grained; grains hard and light color; resistant to rust and

drought. 3.5 Distribution: France, Egypt, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Southern Rus

sia, other Mediterranean and Black Sea districts, and experimentally

in the United States. 4.5 Varieties: Poulard; composite wheats (T. compositum), known as

Miracle, Egyptian or Mummy wheats, having branched or compound

heads whose grains develop unequally. 5.5 Use: Macaroni and other pastes; bread; mixed with bread wheats

to produce flour desired by certain French markets. 7.4 Triticum sat. durum. 1.5

Name: Durum, macaroni, or flint wheats. 2.5 Characteristics: Hardest grain and longest beard known among wheats;

plants tall; leaves smooth with hard cuticle; heads slender, compact, at times very short; always bearded; grains glassy, sometimes rather transparent, yellowish, long; very sensitive to changes of environment; high gluten content; drought and rust resistant; spikelets two to four-grained.

Mexico, and Central America; extensively raised in south and east
Russia, Asia Minor, Turkestan, Egypt, Tunis, Sicily, Italy, India,

Chile, Argentina, United States, and Canada. 4.5 Varieties: 1.6 Gharnovka, Velvet Don, and Arnautka (Azov Sea region, Russia)

United States. 2.6 Kubanka (east of Volga river, Russia), United States. 3.6 Saragolla (southeast Italy). 4.6 Goose wheat (Canada. Dakota). 5.6 Trigo candeal and Anchuelo (Argentina). 6.6 Nicaragua (Central America, Texas).

7.6 There are perhaps several dozen other varieties. 5.5 Uses: Macaroni; semolina; noodles; all kinds of pastries; bread; it is

coming to be used for all purposes, in some regions, as ordinary

wheat flour. 8.4 Triticum vulgare.

1.5 Name: This is the common bread wheat. 2.5 Characteristics: Well known; heads rather loosely formed; bearded

or bald; chaff usually smooth but may be velvety; spikelets generally three-grained, but may be two, and rarely four; stem usually

hollow; all the characteristics vary widely (see varieties). 3.5 Distribution: Practically over the whole globe, within the limits

already given (see varieties). 4.5 Varieties: (Carleton's division, based not on botanical but on environ

mental characteristics). 1.6 Soft winter wheats: Grain amber to white; produced by moist

mild climate of even temperature; found in eastern United States, western and northern Europe, Japan, and in portions of China

India, Australia, and Argentina. 2.6 Hard winter wheats: Usually red-grained; usually bearded; rela

tively high gluten content; grown on black soils in climate characterized by extremes of temperature and moisture. Found chiefly in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Oklahoma in the United States (the wheat of Crimean origin known as “Turkey red"), in Argentina (the Italian wheat, Barletta), in Hungary and Roumania, in southern and southwestern Russia, and to some extent in

Canada, northern India, Asiatic Turkey, and Persia. 3.6 Hard spring wheats: What has been said of the hard winter wheats

also applies to this group, the difference being that the growing season is shorter, and the winter too severe for winter varieties. They are found in central and western Canada, the north central states of the United States (these are the fife and blue-stem wheats),

east Russia and western and southern Siberia. 4.6 White wheats: Soft and very starchy; grains harder and much

drier than those of the soft winter wheats; fall or spring sown, even in same locality; grown chiefly in the Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the United States, in Australia, in Chile, in

Turkestan, and the Caucasus. 5.6 Early wheats: Grain soft or semi-hard, amber to red; main charac

teristic is that they ripen early. Found in Australia and India, have a slight representation in California, and include some of the

dwarf wheats of Japan.
5.5 Districts in the United States (Carleton's division).
1.6 Soft wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14} bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.
1.8 Fultz.

5.8 Jones' Winter Fife.
2.8 Fulcaster.

6.8 Red Wonder. 3.8 Early Red Clawson.

7.8 Gold Coin. 4.8 Longberry.

8.8 Blue Stem.
3.7

Needs of the grower.
1.8 Harder-grained, more glutinous varieties.
2.8 Hardier winter varieties for the most northern portions.
3.8 Early maturity.
4.8 Rust resistance.

1.7

4.8

2.6 Semi-hard winter wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.
1.8
Fultz.

5.8 Valley.
2.8 Poole.

6.8 Nigger. 3.8 Rudy.

7.8 Dawson's Golden Chaff 4.8 Mediterranean.

8.8 Early Red Clawson. 3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Hardness of grain.
2.8

Rust resistance.
3.8 Hardy winter varieties.
3.6 Southern wheat.

Present average yield per acre, about 9; bushels. 2.7 Chief varieties now grown.

1.8 Fultz.
2.8 Fulcaster.
3.8 Red May.
4.8

Rice.
5.8 Everett's High Grade.
6.8 Boughton.
7.8 Currel's Prolific

8.8 Purple Straw.
3.7 Needs of the grower.
1.8

Rust resistance.
2.8 Early maturity.
3.8 Resistance to late spring frosts.

Stiffness of straw. 4.6 Hard spring wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 13 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties.

1.8 Saskatchewan Fife.
2.8 Scotch Fife.
3.8 Power's Fife.
4.8 Wellman's Fife.
5.8 Hayne's Blue Stem.
6.8 Bolton's Blue Stem.

7.8 Minnesota 163.
3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Early maturity.
2.8 Rust resistance.
3.8 Drouth resistance.

4.8 Hardy winter varieties. 5.6 Hard winter wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 123 bushels. 2.7

Chief varieties grown. 1.8

Turkey. 2.8 Kharkov.

3.8 Big Frame.
3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Drouth resistance.
2.8 Hardy winter varieties.

3.8 Early maturity. 6.6 Durum wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, 114 bushels. 2.7 Chief varieties.

Nicaragua 2.8 Turkey. 3.8 Arnautka.

4.8 Kubanka.
3.7 Needs of the grower

1.8 Durum varieties.
2.8 Drouth resistance.
3.8 Rust resistance.

4.8 Early maturity. 7.6 Irrigated wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 21 bushels. 2.7 Chief varieties.

1.8 Sonora.

1.8

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