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Field of wheat, Illustration of. . . . 112

Fife wheat 11

Fire 148

Fixation of qualities 43

Flax, Selection of 39

Flour 21

Acidity of 21

Adulteration of 301

Bleaching of 274-275, 285

Brands of 285-286

Bread 286-287

Commercial grades 285-286

Comparative values of 285 •

Composition of 26, 299 .

Durum wheat 284

Entire wheat 284-285

Grades of 275

Graham 284

Hard-wheat 283

Pastrv 284

Patent 270,275

Self-raising 285

Soft-wheat 283-284

Flour beetles 184 ■

Flour moth 183-184

Flours, Different uses of 283

Flour yield of wheat 277

Flowering 20-21

Flowers of wheat 14

Food of plants 126-127

Food of plants, Fertilizers and . . 143-145

Food supply. Scarcity of 316

Food taken from soil by plants. . . 147

Food, Wheat as 7, 8, 286

Frosts 149

Frumity 283

Fultz 11

Fungous enemies 155-169

G.

Gambling 255

Garlic 153

Germination 16-17,18, 22-23, 142

Germination and Fertilizers 142

Germ of wheat 15, 25

Glume-spot 155

Glumes 14

Gluten 27, 273, 283

Gluten content 10, 48-49

Grades:

Commercial 223-224

Composition and 28

Contract 222-223, 224

Contract, Gresham's law 225

Uniformity of 223

Grades of flour 275

Grading 221-222

Grain aphis 180-181

Grain beetles 184

Grain dealers 242

Independent 217-218

Grain dealers' associations:

Local 217

Rules and practices of 218

Grain moth 182-183

Grain privileges 243-244

Page

Grain railways 189

Grains in bushel 22

Grains in spike 15

Grain trade:

Development of 214

Importance of 214-215

Grain vessels. Nationality of 197

Gramineae 2

Granary weevil 182

Grape-Nuts 298, 300

Grass:

Classification 2-3

Family of 2-3

Origin of 2-3

Grasshoppers (See Locust) .... 176-179

Green bug 180-181

Gresham's law 225

Growers of wheat 29-31, 33

Growth:

Heat units and 11-24, 127

Period of 23-24

Processes of 127

Rainfall and 23-24

Temperature and 23-24

Guano 137-138

Gulf exports 189-193

Gypsum 139-140

n.

Hail 148

Handstones 262

Hardness of wheat 51

Hard spring wheat 53

Hard winter wheat 10

Harrowing 70-71

Objects of 70

Harrows:

Ancient 70-71

Disc 71

Modern 71

Primitive 70

Tooth 71

Harvest customs 73-77

Ancient 74-75

European 74

Modern 75-77

Harvesters, Combined 90-95

Definition of 90

Horse power 92

Illustration of 104

Steam 92-93

Stripper 91

Use in United States 92

Use of. . 90

Use of stripper 91

Harvesters, Self-binding 87-89

Classes of 87-88

Definition of 87

Illustration of 34, 128

Low-down 87-88

Modern 87, 89

Patents on 88

Harvesting:

Implements of 78-94

Maturity of wheat for 78

Outfit complete 93-94

Primitive methods. t 78

Page

Harvest laborers ... 75-77

American migration of 75-77

European migration of . 75

Typical American . 76

Harvest period 45

Customs of 73-77

Risks of 73-74

Harvest time succession 76-77

Hay, wheat 302

Header 80-84

Cutting 82-84

Definition of ... 81

Early 83

Gallic 81,83

Illustration of . ... 82

Kinds of 81

Modern 83,84

Stripping 81

Use of 84

Header barges 82

Header binder.. 89

Header, Use of 89

Mississippi valley 84

Pacific coast 84

Hedging sales 246

Hessian fly 170-174

Description of 170-172

Distribution of 170

Effect on wheat 172

Introduction of 170

Life history 170-172

Losses from ... 172-173

Remedies 173-174

Homotyposis 35

Hordese 2

Hot waves 149

Hot winds 149

Humus 129-130

Crop rotation and 129-130

Supply of 129

Hungarian milling . 270

Hybridization 40-46

Basis stock of 41

Botanical classes and ... 43

Characteristics affected by 45

Composite 44

History of 43-46

Of races 41

Process of 41

Results of 42

With rye . 45

Hybrids:

Characteristics of . 41

Garton's 42

Natural 40

I.

Importance of wheat 6-8

Qualitative . 6

Quantitative 6 7

Importation of seed . 50

Imports:

Great Britain 315

Rome 316

World 318

Improved varieties. Permanence of 46

Improvement of wheat 33-46

Page

Index of authors. Topical 354

Indian meal moths 184

"Inland Empire*' 93

Insect enemies 170-187

Growing wheat 170-181

Losses to growing grain 181

Losses to stored grain 184

Remedies, Growing grain ... . 181

Remedies, Stored grain 184-185

Species 170

Stored wheat 181-185

Inspection 219-220

Institutional evolution 29-33

Insurance 186-187, 226-227

Grain in transit 226

Growing grain—Europe 186

Growing grain—United States, 186-187

Marine 227

Natural destroyers in field . . . 186-187

Stored grain 226

International grain trade 305

International wheat trade 318

Irrigated wheat 51

Irrigation 116-123

Alkali 120-121

Ancient 115-116

Cost of 121

Early United States 117

Historical 115-116

Methods 119-120

Modern— Foreign countries. .. 116-117

Modern—United States 118

Problems 118-119

Rainfall and 122

Semi-arid region of U . S 121-123

Irrigation water:

Composition of. 120-121

Fertilizing value of 146

Supply of 118

Italian paste 296

J.

Joint worm 181

Jones' winter fife 45

K.

Kernel 15-16

Kouskous 283

Kubanka 11, 51

L.

Labor 59 106-107

Cost of 59

Human 59

Required for production .... 106-107

I ake shipments 194

Land plaster 139-140

Leaf blight 169

Leaves 14, 18

Lime 138-139

Line elevator companies 204

Locusts 176-179

Breeding grounds of 177-178

Life history 178-179

Plagues of 176-178

Remedies 180

Rocky Mountain 177-179

Page

Loose smut 159

Loss from:

Natural destroyers 185

Poor seed 54

M.

Macaroni 293-296

Composition of 296

Food value of 293

Processes of manufacture. . . .295-296*

Wheats used 293-294

Macaroni industry. 294-295

Foreign countries 294

United States 294

Macaroni wheat:

Field of 292

Machinery:

Distribution of 99

Harvesting 78-94

Manufacture of 09 *

Manure 136-137

Deterioration of 137

Map of wheat in United States. . . 9

Margins 244,260

Market:

Local 240

Primary 188, 219

Speculative 241

World 241

Marketing 214-233

Argentina 231-233

Canada 232-233

Foreign countries 228-233

India 230-231

Methods of 215

Russia 228-230

Markets 240-241

Marl 139

Material in acre crop 24

Maturity, early 11

Meal snout-moth 184

Meal worms 184

Measurement of wheat 22

Mediterranean flour moth 183-184

Meridian bisecting acreage ...... 4

Middlings 274

Middlings purifier 274

Midge 175-176

Migration of wheat 1-2, 4

Mildew 169

Milling 262-282

Bleaching of flour 274-275

Bolting 267

Cleaning of wheat 273

Dust collector 275

Early inventions 267

Early United States 267-268

Fundamental processes . . .273-274
Gradual reduction process... .270-271

High 268-269

Long svstem 271

Low 268

Middlings . 269

Milling proper 274

Mixing of wheat . .272-273

Modern 267-275

Present processes 271-275

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Milling, Roller 269-270

Selection of wheat 271-272

Short system 271

Spring wheat 269

Time required 276

Winter wheat 269

Milling industry 279-282

Argentina 282

Australia 282

Canada 282

Census United States 280

Foreign countries 280-282

Geographical location U.S.. .279-280

Great Britain 281

Hungary 280-281

Leading states U. S 279-280

Minneapolis 279

Minnesota 279

Netherlands 282

'New Zealand 282

Orient 282

Russia 281-282

United States 279-280

Milling products 275, 283

Mills:

Ancient 263

Capacity of 276-277

Cattle 265

Early United States 266-267

Handstones 262

Large modern 272, 278

Large typical 276-277

Mortar and pestle 262-264

Quern 264

Saddle stones 263

Slave 265

Types of 262

Water 265-266

Wind 265-266

Minnesota No. 169 wheat 11

Minnesota 163 wheat 22

Mixing 225-226,272-273

Moisture content 26, 50

Moisture effects 50

Moisture, Excessive 149-150

Mortar and pestle 263

Type of 262-264

Moths:

Angoumois grain 182-183

Indian meal 184

Meal snout 184

Mediterranean flour 183-184

Motor power 59-61

Animal 59,61

Electricity 61

Human 59

Steam 61

Movement of wheat. 303-319

Eastern 189-192

Export United States 304-305

Financiering of 227-228

Internal United States 304-305

Southern 192-193

World 316-319

Multiplication of wheat 21-22

Mummy wheat 15, 23

Mustard 153

[graphic]

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N.

Name of wheat 1-2

Natural destroyers. Losses from. . 185

Natural environment 47-51

Natural Food Company 300

New varieties 32

Nitragin 132

Nitrate of soda 139

Nitrogen 131-134

Fixing of 131-134

Pure cultures 133-134

Nitrogen bacteria 132-134

Artificial distribution of 133-134

Classes of.. 132

Description of 133-134

Nitrogen content 22

By soil inoculation 132-134

Nitrogen famine 131

Nitrogen free extract 27

Nodes 13-14, 17

Nomenclature 8

Non-shattering wheat 11, 45

Noodles... 297

Northern grown seed . . 41

Northern limits of production. ... 4

0.

Oats 2, 5

Consumption of 7

Organs of reproduction 14

. Oriental trade 197

Origin of wheat 1-3

Biological 2-3

Etymological 1

Geographical 1-2

Historical 2

Outline of

Authors, topical 354

Bibliography 327

Wheat 321-325

Ovary 14

Ovulary 20

P.

Pacific coast exports 194

Pasturing of wheat 72.302

Per capita consumption 302

Period of growth 17, 23-24,49

Phosphoric acid 138

Physical properties 22

Pit, Chicago 248

Plant breeding. Father of 43

Plant lice. Wheat 176

Plant pathology 481

Plow . 63

Common hand 63

Coulters 62

Early American 61,62

Early European 62

Electric 63

Fowler 63

Gang 63

Modern 63

Patents on 63

Primitive 61-63

Sulky 63

Page

Plowing 61-65

Depth of 65

Popular prejudices 62

Tail 62

Time of 63-65

Polish wheat 3, 8, 11

Pollen 20-21, 40

Potash 139

Potatoes as food 7

Poulard wheat 11

Powdery mildew 169

Predictions of wheat shortage. .316-317

Prehistoric wheat 2

Price 234-261

Argentina 313

Communication and 237

Competition and 237-238

Exportation and 238

Factors of 234

India 311

Reactions 235, 237

Transportation and 237

Visible supply and 238-239

Frice determining influences 241

Primary grain markets 188

Primary market 219

Pringle s Defiance 44

Privileges, grain 243-244

Production 7, 303-319

Argentina 311-313

Australian 315-316

Austria-Hungary 316

Belgium 316

Brazil 316

Canada 313-315

Chile 316

Egypt 316

Europe 319

Factors of 108,109

France 316

Germany 316

Increase of in Russia 308

India 310-311

Italy 316

Land values and 303

Limits of in United States 303

Manchuria 197

Mexico 316

Movement of wheat and 303

Netherlands 316

Northern Hemisphere 319

Roumania 316

Russia 307-310

Siberia 309

Southern Africa 316

Southern Hemisphere 319

Statistical 304

Statistics, Argentina 313

Statistics, England 315

Statistics, India 311

Statistics, Russia 309

Statistics, World 317

United Kingdom 315

United States 304

Uruguay 316

World 316-319

Products of wheat, Animal food, 301-302

Page

Profit on raising wheat 106

Protein 27

Puts 243-244

Q

Quern 264

R.

Railroads:

Discrimination 218-219

Elevators and 207

Grain lines 189

Rail shipments, statistics . . . 194-195

Rain belt in United States 122

Rainfall in United States 121-123

Ready-to-eat wheat foods 297-301

Commercial success of 300

Composition of 299

Consumption of 299-300

Kinds of 298

Processes of manufacture 298

Reaper 84-86

Bell's 85

Early American 86

Early English 85-86

Definition of 84

Illustration of 306

Modern self-rake 86

'Use of 86-87

Red wheat 10

Regermination 17

Resistant to climate, Wheat 11

Rice 2

Rice as a food 7

Rice weevil .*. . . 182

Ripening 20, 21

Time required 23-24

River wheat tug, Illustration of. . 191

Roller milling, Process of 269-270

Romanow wheat 5

Roots 11-13, 18

Root system . 12

Rotation of crops 144-145

Russian cactus 151-152

Russian soils 307-308

Russian thistle 151-152

Description of 152

Dispersion of 151

Extermination of 152

Rust 162-169

Black or stem 162

Crown 162

Development 166-167

Dispersion of 165-166

Distribution of 166

How damage results 167

Kinds of 162

Life history. 162-166

Losses from ... . 167-168

Red or orange leaf 162

Remedies 168-169

Resistance to 45

Resistant wheat 10

Resisting varieties 168

Spores, Growth of 163-164

Spores, Kinds of 163

Spores, Viability of 165-166

Page

Rye 2

Consumption of 7-8

Food 7

Production in Russia 309

Winter 4-5

S.

Saddle stones 263

Salt 140

Salts and germination 16

Sawflies 181

Scotch fife wheat 47

Scythe 79-80

Hainault 79

Use of 79

Seacoast wheat 49

Sea level wheat 5

Seasonal effects 51

Section of wheat grain 16

Seed 51-69

Advantages of exchange 54-55

Amount of, per acre 69

Bed for 65

Dealers in 53

Deterioration of 54-55

Effects of good and poor 52

Evils of exchange of 55

Importance of 51

Importations 56

Purchase of 51, 53

Wheat for 51-56

Seeders 66-69

Ancient 68

Early English 66-67

Force feed 67,68

Patents on 67

Wagon 67

Width of 68

Seeding 17, 65-66

By nature 69

Depth of 70

Time of 69-70

Selection 3, 36-40

Artificial 36

Characteristics influenced by. . . 39-40

Early 37

Heavy seed 39

Incidences of 36

Light seed 38

Minnesota station 37

Natural 36, 40

Results of 37-40

Self-binding harvester, Illustra-
tion of 34,87, 128

Self-fertilization. 21, 41, 43

Semi-arid region of U. S.. 121-123, 307

Semi-hard district 9

Semolina 295

Sewage waters as fertilizers 141-142

Sharlock 153

Shipments out of country 304

Shocking 90

Shorts, Composition of 25

Shredded Wheat Biscuit 297-298

Sickle 78-79

Smut 155-162

Early remedies 155, 157

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