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O'er fell and mountain sheen
O'er moor and mountain green
Over the cloudlet dim
Over the rainbow's rim
Then when the gloaming comes
Low in the heather blooms
THE SEMICOLON. 1. The Semicolon is used to indicate a longer panse than that required by the comma.
2. The Semicolon is most commonly employed in the following cases :
(a.) When the clauses of a complex or compound sentence contain distinct propositions, and each clause has subordinate clauses dependent on it, they are generally separated by a semicolon.
EXAMPLE.—It was not till the reign of George the Second that our country could glory in a great painter; and George the Third was on the throne before she had reason to be proud of any of her sculptors.
(6.) When the second clause of a sentence contains the reason for the statement made in the first, it is generally separated from it by a semicolon.
EXAMPLE.—There was no way of escape ; for the drawbridge had been cut. (c.) Antithetical clauses are separated from each other by a semicolon.
EXAMPLE.—Righteousness exalteth a nation ; but sin is a reproach to any people.
LESSON VI. Point the following sentences, and give a reason for each point you insert :
A considerable part of his life has generally been spent in the capital and the refinements of the capital follow him into the country. It was very seldom that the country gentleman caught glimpses of the great world and what he saw of it tended rather to confuse than to enlighten his understanding. At first Nicholas was inclined to give his uncle credit for some portion of this bold attempt to carry off Smike but on more mature consideration he was inclined to think that the full merit of it rested with the schoolmaster. His boys followed
the plough but his girls went out to service. He made an effort to converse with them in his usual style but his ghastly look surprised and alarmed them. Soon his face grew black his eyes turned in his head he uttered a cry staggered and fell into the arms of Lord Bruce. He had no lancet but he opened a vein with a penknife. The blood flowed freely but the king was still insensible.
I have marked
LESSON VII. Point the following sentences, and give a reason for each point you insert :
The army had become a mob and the mob melted fast away. The door of the cell was softly opened and there lay Argyle on the bed sleeping in his irons the placid sleep of infancy. The divines who attended the prisoner were not of his own persuasion but he listened to them with civility. The King mentioned the news from the throne and the Houses assured him that they would stand by him against every enemy. The two armies were now face to face and a few shots were exchanged that did little or no execution. There was no reason however why I should refrain from seeing the person who had inconsiderately sent her to so great a distance by night and alone and as it was not improbable that if she found herself near home she might take farewell of me and deprive me of the opportunity I avoided the most frequented ways and took the most intricate.
'Tis pleasant through the loophole of retreat
It is the hour when from the boughs
The nightingale's high note is heard
Seem sweet in every whispered word
1. The Colon is used to indicate a longer pause than that required by the semicolon.
2. No definite rule can be given for the use of the colon, as the best writers use it very capriciously. Indeed it is now seldom used. The most common use of it is to bind into a compound sentence without a conjunction a number of simple sentences, each of which might be made a separate sentence.
EXAMPLES. -He would stand by France : he would break with France : he would never meet another Parliament: he would order writs for a Parliament to be issued without delay. — There is that maketh himself rich, yet hath nothing: there is that maketh himself poor, yet hath great riches.
3. Another use of the colon is, in conjunction with the dash, to introduce a quotation.
EXAMPLE. — To show the style of this book, we may give the following extract :-“The remainder of the troops,” &c.
1. The Period is used at the end of every complete sentence. 2. The period is also used after abbreviations.
EXAMPLES.--H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, for His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.-On H.M.S, for on Her Majesty's service.
The point of Interrogation is placed after all direct questions.
The point of Exclamation is placed after Interjections, or after any phrases, clauses, or sentences that, like Interjections, express any emotion of the mind. EXAMPLES. -Ah me!-How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank !
O lady, twine no wreath for me,
LESSON VIII. Point the following Exercise, and give a reason for each point you insert :—* .
The highway of the upright is to depart from evil he that keepeth his way preserveth his soul.
Wasted weary wherefore stay
Hark the mass is singing. Where were the traces of her early cares her sufferings and fatigues All gone. No no it cannot be. Earth to earth ashes to ashes dust to dust Come forth 0 ye children of gladness come I come I come ye have called me long.
Shall we build to ambition ah no
For see they would pin him below
'Tis the hour when happy faces
* These Exercises, being intended to illustrate the use of the colon, and the points of interrogation and exclamation, have been divided into sentences. The use of the period can be illustrated from the reading lesson.
He rushed into the room he dashed the furniture to pieces he fled by a back door he was lost sight of when evening came on.
The Parenthesis is used to enclose some words supplementary to the leading idea of the sentence, and which might be left out without injury to the sense.
EXAMPLE. —As the murderers, or executioners (call them as you will), dragged him along, he recognized me.
The Quotation is used to enclose words actually quoted.
DASH 1. The Dash is used to indicate a break in the sentence.
EXAMPLE.—Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me out of thy book.
2. The Dash is also used to connect a succession of clauses beginning with the same word.
EXAMPLE. —And now the bell—the bell she had so often heard, rung its remorseless toll.
3. The Dash is now almost universally used in place of the parenthesis.
EXAMPLE.-Every one of the chief Reformers--I do not at this moment remember a single exception—was a Humanist.
Punctuation can be best taught by a careful examination of the best authors. We subjoin a few extracts, pointed as the authors wrote them; and the pupil should be asked to account for every point:
LESSON IX. But, night in this dreadful spot !-night, when the smoke was changed to fire; and every chimney spurted up its flame; and places,