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Ah! great and gentle lord,
Who wast as is the conscience of a saint
Among his warring senses to thy knights;
To whom my false voluptuous pride, that took
Full easily all impressions from below,
Would not look up, or half despised the height

To which I would not or I could not climb.
DEFINITION.—Pronouns which stand for persons or things, and relate
to or are connected with words going before, are called RELATIVE

The Relative Pronouns are who, which, and that. The word going before to which they relate is called the Antecedent. Antecedent means simply going before.

LESSON XXII. In the following Exercise, point out those Pronouns which denote possession :

John gave William his book. The king ordered his ministers to give up their seals of office. John gave his sister a present on her birth-day. Your father has called you. My time is short. Your coming, friends, revives me. My griefs pain me. Even from out thy slime the monsters of the deep are made.

Here, in this place,
I wait my mother's coming. She shall know
What thou hast told: her counsels I will follow.
You must depart: your presence may prevent

Our interview. When the general reviewed his troops, they appeared to his practised eye an undisciplined rabble. All the men went to their homes.

DEFINITION.-Pronouns which denote possession are called POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

The Possessive Pronouns are my, thy, his, her, its, our, your, their,


LESSON XXIII. In the following Exercise, point out the Pronouns which are used in asking questions :

Who killed Cock Robin? Which of you did that? What have you done? Who so base as be a slave? Into which shelf did you put the book? To whom did you offer the present? What have you got to say? Who comes here? What would I more, proud Roman? What means the villain? What do I mean? I'll tell thee what I mean. What's this? Who would fardels bear? Which of the two do you mean?

DEFINITION.-Pronouns which are used in asking questions are called INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

The Interrogative Pronouns are who, which, and what.

LESSON Xxiv. In the following Exercise, point out the Personal, Relative, Possessive, and Interrogative Pronouns :

When James came home, he found his mother waiting for him at the door of their cottage. King George became blind in his old age.

I come to speak to you of what he wish'd,
Enoch, your husband: I have ever said
You chose the best among us—a strong man;
For where he fixt his heart he set his hand

To do the thing he willed, and bore it through. He says that he is grieved to know your wretched position, but he bids you not lose heart; for if you only take advantage of what he has sent you, there will be an end of your misery. When Mary, who had been in prison eighteen years, ascended the scaffold, her altered appearance was manifest. Who shouts treason? Let him die.

O that those lips had language ! Life has passed
With me but roughly since I heard thee last.
Those lips are thine—thy own sweet smile I see,
The same that oft in childhood solaced me.

LESSON XXV. Point out the different kinds of Pronouns in your readinglesson.


LESSON XXVI. In the following Exercise, point out those Conjunctions which not only join the words, but indicate that the things are to be united :

John and James run. John went away, and James followed him. You may go, but he must stay. Both the sea and the land support multitudes of living creatures. You may go if you choose. This is my home, and this my little wife. Sir Walter Scott wrote many novels and several poems. I was late, though I ran all the way. Virgil was as great a poet as Cicero was an orator.

She loved, and young Richard had settled the day,

And she hoped to be happy for life ;
But Richard was idle and worthless, and they
Who knew him would pity poor Mary, and say

That she was too good for his wife.

LESSON XXVII. In the following Exercise, point out those Conjunctions which unite the words but separate the things :

He or his father must go. Either you or I should run after him. He did not go himself, nor would he allow me to go. Neither sun nor stars appeared for many days.

Nor scratch had he, nor harm nor dread;

But the same couch beneath
Lay a great wolf all torn and dead,"

Tremendous still in death. I will not let thee go except thou bless me. I cannot tell whether he has arrived or not. No man can say whether the pain was severe, unless he has had experience of it. I can promise more, provided you require it.

The bleak wind of March

Made her tremble and shiver,
But not the dark arch

Or the black flowing river.
DEFINITION I.--Those Conjunctions which not only join the words, but
indicate that the things are to be united, are called COPULATIVE CON.

DEFINITION II.—Those Conjunctions which join the words, but separate the things, are called DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS.

LESSON XXVIII. Point out all the Copulative and Disjunctive Conjunctions in the following Exercise :

James and Mary went to school when they were six years old. We cannot wonder if bad conduct leads to disgrace. We cannot solve that riddle unless we find the key. Both you and I have many comforts, although we sometimes forget this. The king walked on before, but



the queen remained behind until darkness came on. The broad seas swelled to meet the keel, and swept behind. True happiness can be found, if we search for it aright. England and France have been engaged in many wars, but now they are at peace.

Our very hopes belied our fears,

Our fears our hopes belied ;-
We thought her dying when she slept,

And sleeping when she died ! :
For when the morn came, dim and sad,

And chill with early showers,
Her quiet eyelids closed-she had

Another morn than ours !

LESSON XXIX. Point out all the Copulative and Disjunctive Conjunctions in your reading-lesson,

SUMMARY. 1. Nouns are divided into three classes-- Proper, Common, and Abstract.

(a.) A Proper Noun is one which is the name of any particular person, place, or thing.

(6.) A Common Noun is one which is the name of a class, or of all things of the same kind.

(c.) An Abstract Noun is one which is the name of any quality or action.

2. Verbs are divided into two classes—Transitive and Intransitive.

(a.) A Transitive Verb is one which requires a Noun, Pronoun, or some other word after it to make complete sense.

(6.) An Intransitive Verb is one which conveys complete sense by itself, and does not require any word after it to complete the sense.

3. Adjectives are divided into two classes-Attributive and Numeral.

(a.) An Attributive Adjective is one which expresses the quality of an object.

(6.) A Numeral Adjective is one which specifies the number of the object.

4. Adverbs are divided into three classes-Adverbs of Time, Adverbs of Place, and Adverbs of Manner.

(a.) An Adverb of Time is one which specifies the time of an action.

(6.) An Adverb of Place is one which specifies the place where an action is performed.

(c.) An Adverb of Manner is one which specifies the manner in which an action is performed, or which modifies an Adjective or other Adverb.

5. Pronouns are divided into four classes—Personal, Relative, Possessive, and Interrogative.

(a.) A Personal Pronoun is one which is used in place of a person or thing.

(6.) A Relative Pronoun is one which is used for a person or thing, and relates to some word going before.

(c.) A Possessive Pronoun is one which denotes possession. (d.) An Interrogative Pronoun is one which is used in asking questions.

6. Conjunctions are divided into two classes-Copulative and Disjunctive.

(a.) A Copulative Conjunction is one which not only joins the words, but unites the things.

(6.) A Disjunctive Conjunction is one which unites the words, but separates the things.

7. The Preposition and Interjection do not require to be subdivided.


REVIS AL. Name the Class and Subdivision of each word in the following Exercises :

LESSON XXX. The spider is a cunning fellow. He makes his living by his arts and stratagems. He lives by snares and plots; and yet he is an interesting little creature. He exhibits wonderful skill and ingenuity in weaving his nest, and possesses extraordinary patience and perseverance. The thread of the spider is a soft substance, which is contained in a little bag in the body of the insect.

LESSON XXXI. Little Ann had a famous dog. His name was Grip. One day Ann went out to visit a poor woman, and took Grip with her. Grip had not gone far until he saw a cat. He immediately gave chase; but the cat ran up a tree, and was safe. Grip stood at the bottom, and barked with all his might; but the cat never heeded him.

LESSON XXXII. One day a little old man went with his ass to market to buy some things. On his way from the market, some naughty boys picked stones

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