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from the roadside, and struck the ass, which lay down, and crushed all the things which the poor man had purchased. . The boys ran away.
LESSON XXXIII. One cold day in January two little boys were running merrily to school. Their names were Willie and Eddie. When they got near the door of the school, Eddie slipped over a piece of orange-peel, which a careless little girl had thrown on the pavement. He fell heavily, and broke his leg. The poor little boy cried out with pain. A kind man came up at the time, and took Eddie gently in his arms, and carried him to his mother.
And weathers every sky.
They flourish and decline.
PART THIRD. INFLECTION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
LESSON I. EXAMINE the Nouns in the following Exercise, and tell what change you observe in each :
The shoemaker made a boot. The shoemakers made boots. The bird sings. The birds sing. The house fell. The houses fell. The cat mews. The cats mew. The horse runs. The horses run.
What change has been made on shoemaker, boot, bird, house, cat, horse? Why has the letter s been added in each case ? How many does the word shoemaker, boot, bird, &c., mean? How many does the word shoemakers, boots, birds, &c., mean?
LESSON II. Examine the Nouns in the following Exercise, and tell what change you observe in each :
The church stands on the hill. The churches stand on the hills. The hiss was heard. The hisses were heard. The loaf was good. The loaves were good. The knife was sharp. The knives were sharp. The lady rode a white pony. The ladies rode white ponies. The boy was drowned. The boys were run over. The man slept. The men slept. The tooth was decayed. The teeth fell out. The fat ox was sent to town. The fat oxen were killed.
What change has been made on church, hill, hiss, loaf, knife, lady, pony, boy, man, tooth, ox? Why have these changes been made on these words? How many does the word church, hiss, loaf, &c., mean? How many does the word churches, hisses, loaves, &c., mean?
DEFINITION I.-When the Noun is employed to express one object, it is said to be in the SINGULAR number.
DEFINITION II.—When the Noun is employed to express more than one object, it is said to be in the PLURAL number.
: LESSON III. In the following Exercise point out which Nouns are in the singular number, and which in the plural:
John has six hats. The desk is made of ivory. The cat hunts the rats. Four tables stood in each room. He broke six bottles of wine. Give me paper, pens, and ink. Have you a pencil? He placed several stools in the house. The little birds build their nests in the trees. The sun shines in the blue heavens. James has three sons. The little girls have no father or mother. We obtain milk from cows. The masons built the walls of the house with bricks, and the carpenters laid down the planks. Stones are useful for many purposes.
What have you done in each case to form the plural ? What have you added to the singular? As this is the most common way of forming the plural in English, we have this Rule :
Rule I.-In English the PLURAL is generally formed by adding the letter s to the singular.
LESSON IV. Examine carefully the Nouns in the following Exercise, and then point out how the plural is formed :
Glasgow has many churches. The man sold a brush, and bought five thrushes. The fox is cunning, and has often played many hoaxes. He broke all the dishes. You shall have your wish. Sixteen boxes fell on his crutches. A little miss bought a hutch, Baby sent ten kisses.
What has been added in each case? In what letters do these Nouns end ? Hence we have-
RULE II.-When the Noun ends in s, sh, ch (soft), x, or o, the PLURAL is generally formed by adding the letters es to the singular.
LESSON v. Write down all the Nouns in your reading-lesson which form the plural by adding s or es to the singular.
Lady, pony, day, ray, beauty, duty, fray, lay, pay, boy, body, story, injury, quality, society, party, century, joy, theory, way.
Arrange in one column those which simply add the letter s, and in another those which change the final y into i and then add es. What kind of letter have all those which add s got before the final y? Hence we can form this Rule :
RULE III.–Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant* form the PLURAL by changing the y into i and adding the letters es.
LESSON VII. In the following Exercise point out some Nouns the plural of which is not formed according to the three Rules already given :
John bought a knife, and began to cut the loaf. The man took his wife to see London. They say a cat has nine lives. They came against him with staves in their hands. He fell among thieves. The leaves of the forest were green. He arranged his books upon the shelves. The man lost his teeth, Four mice were caught in the trap. The dog chased the geese. All the women fled away. His feet sunk in the mire. The ox knoweth his owner.
What do you observe in regard to those Nouns which end in f or fe? How is their plural formed ? What do you observe in regard to these words: man, tooth, mouse, goose, woman, foot? Hence we may form these two Rules :· RULE IV.—Some Nouns, ending in for fe, change the f or fe into v, and add the letters es, so as to form the PLURAL.
RULE V.-Some Nouns form the PLURAL, not by addition, but by an internal change.
It was the schooner Hesperus
* Explain this word, and the word vowel.
Blue were her eyes as the fairy flax,
Her cheeks like the dawn of day,
That ope in the month of May.
The skipper he stood beside the helm,
His pipe was in his mouth,
The smoke now west, now south. *
LESSON IX. Write in one column all the singular Nouns, and in another all the plural Nouns in the following passage:
The swallows in their torpid state
Compose their useless wing;
The call of early spring.
The keenest frost that binds the stream,
The wildest wind that blows,
But man, all feeling and awake,
The gloomy scene surveys;
And pant for brighter days.
'Twas in the prime of summer time,
An evening calm and cool,
Came bounding out of school;
Like troutlets in a pool.
* The pupil should not be confined to number in these Exercises, but made to parse each word in so far as we have yet gone. They thus form Revisal Lessons.