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pared. The hen covered her chickens with her wings. The wall was covered with pictures.
What change, if any, do you observe between the words in the first column and those in the third ? Examine the Nouns in the second column, and state what change they have under-, gone. Hence we have these Rules :
RULE I.-In English, the Nominative and the Objective are alike in form, except in the case of Pronouns, and can be recognized only by their position in the sentence.
RULE II.—The Possessive singular is formed by adding an apostrophe (') and 8 to the Nominative.
RULE III. – When the Nominative ends in s, or in the sound of s, and 'the Noun following begins with s, the Possessive is formed by simply adding an apostrophe (').
RULE IV.—The Possessive plural is generally formed by adding an apostrophe (') to the Nominative plural.
RULE V.- When the Nominative plural does not end in s, the Possessive plural is formed like the Possessive singular.
LESSON XX. Tell the number, gender, and case of each Noun in the following Exercise :
Under a spreading chestnut tree
The village smithy stands :
With large and sinewy hands,
Are strong as iron bands.
Look in at the open door;
And hear the bellows roar,
Like chaff from a threshing-floor.
LESSON XXI. Tell the number, gender, and case of each Noun in your reading-lesson.
LESSON XXII. Tell the number, gender, and case of each Noun in the following Exercise :
We walked with Charles, the boys, and Vicky to the river side above the bridge, where all our tenants were assembled with long poles and spears for catching salmon. They all went into the river, walking up it, and then back again, poking about under all the stones to bring fish up to where the men stood with the net. It had a pretty effect.
LESSON XXIII. Tell the number, gender, and case of each 'Noun in the following Exercise :
O for a lodge in some vast wilderness,
LESSON XXIV. In the following Exercise, point out all the words that form Nominatives; tell whether they are Nouns or Pronouns. If Pronouns, of what Person are they?
I gave John an apple. The man rides on horseback. Thou lovest the praise of men. Peter loves to learn his lesson. We threw some stones after the dog. Ye are now full of care and anxiety. They went away the day after we arrived. Horses are useful to the farmer. Ploughs are now generally made of iron. We ran after the gig, but we were unable to overtake it. George shut the door in his face. The wind blew down the lofty trees. I come, I come ; ye have called me long. He comes laden with blessings. Thou comest like the sun in his strength. We come anon. Dogs bark and make a noise.
DEFINITION I.–When the Nominative to a Verb is a Pronoun of the first person, the Verb is said to be of the FIRST PERSON.
DEFINITION II. - When the Nominative to a Verb is a Pronoun of the second person, the Verb is said to be of the SECOND PERSON.
DEFINITION III. – When the Nominative to a Verb is a Noun or a Pronoun of the third person, the Verb is said to be of the THIRD PERSON.
LESSON XXV. Tell the Person of each Verb in the following Exercise, and give in each case a reason for your answer :
Clouds of smoke issued from the furnace. The lambs play in the meadows. The birds sing among the branches. She went away sore displeased. Ye have been long in coming. I remember, I remember the house where I was born. He ran with all his might. They followed the army into Spain. Kings are fond of war. John brought his sister to the circus: she was delighted with her visit. Thou shouldst not torment the cat. We ought ever to learn. It cost him much labour to work that sum. We are fond of swimming. I can go when I please.
LESSON XXVI. Point out the Nominatives in the following Exercise, and tell whether they are singular or plural:
These distinguished gentlemen were reclining on a couple of sofas. The horse drew the heavy cart along the road. The little maid arranged the table. They sat down on a grassy knoll. He left home last evening. This threat broke up the party. I bring fresh showers for the thirsty flowers. We expected the parcel long ago. The river flows on for ever. Men may come, and men may go. A thousand suns shall shine on thee; a thousand moons shall quiver. The young lady sung very beautifully, Boys enjoy the sea. Pictures are useful. The garden was covered with flowers. You told the same story yesterday. The manager clapped his hands as a signal to proceed.
DEFINITION I. – When the Nominative to a Verb is singular, the Verb is said to be SINGULAR.
DEFINITION II.- When the Nominative to a Verb is plural, the Verb is said to be PLURAL.
LESSON XXVII. In the following Exercise, tell the Number of each Verb, and give in each case the reason for your answer :
The trees were bare of foliage. Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo. Different men have different opinions. Martha proceeded to tell her story. The young larks have just left their nests: they cannot fly far. The corn waves in the wind. He fell asleep on the battle-field. King John signed the Great Charter. Various officers fell in that engagement. The soldiers fought with great bravery. The king ordered the cavalry to charge: they immediately obeyed. We are never weary of beholding nature. Her face is ever fresh.
LESSON XXIX. Tell the Person and Number of each Verb in the following Exercise :
You cannot get honey if you are frightened at bees. If the cat sits long enough at the hole, she will catch the mouse. They sell the best goods at the lowest prices. We must try to state the truth. Selfpraise is no recommendation. Boasters are never worth a button with the shank off. Every man should leave a monument behind him. When I see a young lady with a flower-garden on her head, I am sure she must be very ignorant. The sheep know when the rain is coming. Albany had now reached the object of his ambition. The king came in with a frown upon his face. The English placed their standard in the centre. I fear that you have forgotten your lesson.
They grew in beauty side by side,
By mount, and stream, and sea.
I flew to the pleasant fields traversed so oft
The curling waves with awful roar
LESSON XXXI. Examine the Verbs in the following Exercise, and tell whether the action expressed by the Verb is now going on, is past, or is yet to be done:
The boy learns his lesson. The boy learned his lesson yesterday. The boy will learn his lesson to-morrow. The child loves its mother. The child loved the story. The child will love the book in after years. The horse runs fast. The horse ran fast. The horse will run fast in the race. The man sells pins. The man sold all his goods. The man will sell the whole to-morrow. You sleep soundly. You slept soundly. You shall sleep soundly. He rises from his seat. They rose when the king entered. They shall rise, and call thee blessed. The girls dance prettily. The girl danced prettily. The girl will dance prettily some day. The dog barks. The dog barked at the beggar. The dog will bark at the gate. You shall go away to-morrow.
DEFINITION I.-- To denote the Time at which the action expressed hy the Verb takes place, the Verb undergoes an inflection or change of form. This inflection or change of form is called TENSE.
Tense simply means time.
DEFINITION II. – When the action expressed by the Verb is represented As actually going on, the Verb is said to be in the PRESENT TENSE.