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DEFINITION III.-When the action expressed by the Verb is represented as past, the Verb is said to be in the PAST TENSE.
DEFINITION IV.-When the action expressed by the Verb is represented as future, the Verb is said to be in the FUTURE TENSE.
LESSON XXXII. Examine the Verbs in the following Exercise, tell the Tense of each, and show how the Past and Future Tenses are formed :
The king thanked his soldiers. The emperor will return in two years. The priest blessed the people. The priest will bless the congregation. I shall descend soon. He descended from the wall in a cage. The steamer crosses the ferry now. The steamer crossed the ocean last winter. The fire raged fiercely. Linden showed another sight. They walk with open eyes. The children walked into the river. The sun rises in the morning. The sun rose yesterday. The wind will rise in the evening. Thieves steal. The boy stole an apple. He shall come in power. The men take the gold. The soldiers took the town. The enemy will take this road. John gives all his money away. The boy gave his sister an apple. The dog runs fast. The little girl ran after her mother. I shall leave home to-morrow. I left the house yesterday.
DEFINITION I.—Some Verbs form their Past Tense by adding d or ed to the Present. These Verbs are called REGULAR.
DEFINITION II.—Some Verbs form their Past Tense by changing the Vowel of the Present. These Verbs are called IRREGULAR. (See list of Irregular Verbs in Summary.)
DEFINITION III.-—The Future Tense of all Verbs is formed by prefixing shall or will to the simple form of the Verb.
Shall and will are termed Auxiliary or “Helping” Verbs.
LESSON XXXIII. Tell the Person, Number, and Tense of each Verb in the following Exercise :
I shall run after him. You followed him quickly. The horses drew the heavy load. The men left their homes when the soldiers appeared. The eagle soared away into the blue heavens. She lost her doll. Little Bo-peep lost her sheep. They will come home in time. In her ear he whispers gaily. I watched the setting sun. He told the story. This house stands on a hill. The rocks will fall down. We shall soon reach home. I heard the wind sighing among the trees. The rooks settled on the trees. The swallow will come in spring. The pretty little snowdrop peeps above the ground. The snow fell fast. John rode a spirited horse.
The warrior bowed his crested head,
His long-imprisoned sire:
I bring my captive train,
LESSON XXXIV. We may now arrange the Present, Past, and Future Tenses of any Verb, showing at one view the Person, Number, and Tense. Thus:
EXAMPLE I.—THE VERB, To love.
1. We love. 2. Thou lovest.
2. Ye or you love. 3. Het loves.
3. They I love.
PAST TENSE. 1. I loved.
1. We loved. 2. Thou lovedst.
2. You loved. 3. He loved.
3. They loved.
1. We shall or will love.
3. They shall or will love.
EXAMPLE II.—THE VERB, To run.
PRESENT TENSE 1. I run.
1. We run. 2. Thou runnest.
2. You run. 3. He runs.
3. They run.
* Leave out. The Imperative will come in due course. + Or any Noun in the singular number.
Or any Noun in the plural number.
1. We shall or will run.
3. They shall or will run.
EXAMPLE III.—THE VERB, To have.
PRESENT TENSE. 1. I have.
1. We have 2. Thou hast.
2. You have. 3. He has
3. They have.
1. I had.
1. We had.
1. We shall or will have.
3. They shall or will have.
LESSON XXXV. Arrange the following Verbs as in liist Lesson :—to dance, to sing, to laugh, to take, to give, to play, to steal, to say, to make.
LESSON XXXVI. In the following Exercise, point out all the Verbs which express that the action is present, and also those which express that the action has just now been finished :
EXAMPLES. – I write the letter. I write simply expresses that the action is present.--I have written the letter. I have written expresses that the action has just been finished at the moment of speaking.
You say you are unwell. You have said that you have been unwell. The king writes a despatch. The king has written a despatch. We play all day. We have played all day. You have sung that song remarkably well. They have danced with much grace. My sister writes a letter. Your brother has finished his letter. My father has sent away the ship. The messenger has just arrived. The ship has come into the harbour. The officer has this instant gone out. You speak very correctly. I have told you all I know.
DEFINITION.- When the Verb denotes that the action expressed by it has been just now completed, it is said to be in the PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.
Perfect simply means completed, and tells the state of the action. Present tells the time.
LESSON XXXVII. In the following Exercise, point out all the Verbs which express that the action is past, and also those which express that the action is not only past, but also finished or completed :
EXAMPLES.— I wrote the letter. I wrote simply expresses that the action is past.--I had written the letter I had written expresses that the action is not only past, but also completed.
I sent your brother home. I had sent the messenger before you arrived. When the king had seen the spot, he at once selected it. I saw your father long before he had come through the wood. The envoy was greatly displeased when he heard the news. When the news had reached the men, they looked amazed. He danced along the road when he had delivered his commission. You had gone two hours ere the word came. When the soldier had finished his repast, he rose and dressed himself. After the moon had risen, the wind fell. He ran with all his might, after he had recovered from his fear.
DEFINITION. - When the Verb denotes that the action expressed by it is not only past, but also completed, it is said to be in the PAST PERFECT TENSE.
Past denotes the time ; Perfeet, the state of the action.
LESSON XXXVIII. In the following Exercise, point out those Verbs which express that the action is future, and those which express that the action is not only future, but also completed :
EXAMPLES. — I shall write the letter. I shall write simply expresses that the action is future.-I shall have written the letter. I shall have written expresses that the action is not only future, but also completed.
When I shall have finished my task, I shall walk into town. He will visit you, as soon as he will have returned from the Continent. The servant will go on the errand, as soon as the post shall have arrived. Your sister and you will have your pic-nic when the warm summer weather shall have come. As soon as I shall have finished this exercise, we shall take Carlo to the river. He sat down on the bank, after we had reached the spot, and said :
A thousand suns shall shine on thee.
A thousand moons shall quiver;
For ever and for ever. Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you. When once you shall have reached that happy shore, you will have no more sorrow.
DEFINITION.- When the Verb denotes that the action expressed by it is not only future, but also completed, it is said to be in the FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.
Future denotes the time; Perfect, the state of the action.
LESSON XXXIX. Examine the Verbs in the following Exercise, and tell how the Perfect Tenses are formed :
The storm has raged for two days. The thief had stolen the purse. I will have finished my exercise before dinner-time. The rain has ceased. I have taken the whole field. The man will have paid dearly for his ignorance. The clock has just struck twelve. They had scarcely departed when the messenger arrived. Before to-morrow's dawn, we shall have seen the end. Thou hast tried many plans, and yet thou hast not succeeded. Men have ventured much for love. When the lion had shaken his victim, he left him. When she had thought for a little, she wept bitterly. When they shall have cast him forth, they may depart. The fever had run its course. The sun had risen when we left our homes.
RULE. — The Perfect Tenses of any Verb are formed by adding its Past Participle* to the Verb “have.” (See Lesson XXXIV.) Have is called an Auxiliary of Tense.
* In Regular Verbs the past participle is formed like the past tense by adding d or ed to the present tense. In Irregular Verbs the past participle is formed in various ways. (See list in Summary.)