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LESSON XL. We may now arrange the six Tenses of any Verb thus :

Singular. 1. I love. 2. Thou lovest. 3. He loves.

THE VERB, To love.

1. We love.
2. You love.
3. They love.


1. We have loved.. 2. Thou hast loved.

2. You have loved. 3. He has loved,

3. They have loved.

1. I loved.
2. Thou lovedst.
3. He loved.


1. We loved.
2. You loved.
3. They loved.

1. I had loved.
2. Thou hadst loved.
3. He had loved.


1. We had loved.
2. You had loved.
3. They had loved.

FUTURE TENSE. 1. I shall or will love.

1. We shall or will love. 2. Thou shalt or wilt love. 2. You shall or will love. 3. He shall or will love.

3. They shall or will love.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE, 1. I shall or will have loved. 1. We shall or will have loved. 2. Thou shalt or wilt have loved. 2. You shall or will have loved. 3. He shall or will have loved. 3. They shall or will have loved. *

LESSON XLI. Arrange the following Verbs as in last Lesson :—to call, to tell, to form, to break, to pass, to stand.

* The pupil will at once see that the auxiliary have, or its past tense had, must appear in all the perfect tenses.

LESSON XLII. Tell the Person, Number, and Tense of each Verb in the following Exercise :

The moon had risen, and the black clouds disappeared. I have called, but no answer has come. We stood on the bridge, and the white waves rolled below. The raven had pruned his feathers for flight. We have marched many weary miles. The bugle sang truce. He had pitched his tent beside the well. They will have finished dinner in time for the train. You have lost your book. The smoke rose curling from the cottage. The doctor had gone away before she arrived. You shall go to-morrow.

I have sent through the wood-paths a gentle sigh,
And called out each voice of the deep blue sky;
From the streams and the founts I have loosed the chain,
And now they roll on to the silvery main.

He told how murderers walked the earth
Beneath the curse of Cain,
With crimson clouds before their eyes,
And flames about their brain;
For blood has left upon their souls

Its everlasting stain.
They bore him to his mother; and he lay
Upon her knees till noon, and then he died.
She had watched every breath, and kept her hand
Soft on his forehead, and gazed in upon
The dreamy languor of his listless eye;
And she had laid back all his sunny curls,
And kissed his delicate lip, and lifted him
Into her bosom, till her heart grew strong.


LESSON XLIII. In the following Exercise, point out the Verbs which simply assert, those which express power or possibility, and those which express doubt or contingency :

EXAMPLES.—He tells a story. Tells simply asserts the fact.—He can go. Can go expresses the power to go.—If he go, I shall be angry. If he go expresses doubt or contingency.

He went away yesterday. I can go to the ice. If you go, I shall follow you. I may skate. You must learn your lesson. If you escape, you will be taken. You may take the pony, and have a ride. He will arrive to-morrow. The men can finish the work to-day. I have often told you the same story. You may keep the present. Al. though the earth remove, we will not be afraid. If Cæsar had conquered Britain, he would have obtained a triumph. I lay all night in agony. The usher took six hasty strides. I led him to a lonely field. You should learn your lesson. You may have the prize, if you work hard. You might have won the prize, if you had studied. The king sat on a lofty throne. John would have overtaken him, if he had not loitered.

DEFINITION I.-To denote the mode or manner in which the action expressed by the Verb presents itself to our minds, the Verb undergoes an inflection or change of form. This inflection or change of form is called MOOD.

Mood simply means manner.

DEFINITION II. — When the Verb simply asserts, the Verb is said to be in the INDICATIVE MOOD.

Note.—See the Indicative Mood in Lesson XL.

DEFINITION III.—When the Verb expresses power, obligation, or duty, it is said to be in the POTENTIAL MOOD.

Note. - The Potential Mood is formed by the auxiliaries may, can (whose past tenses are might, could), must, should, would.

DEFINITION IV.-When the Verb expresses doubt or contingency, the Verb is said to be in the SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Note.—The Subjunctive Mood is nearly the same as the Indicative, but is generally preceded by the Conjunctions if, though, &c.

Tell the Mood of each Verb in the following Exercise :-

James ran after the pony. The flowers would have withered if I had not watered them. The king can make a belted knight. The emperor fied, and the enemy pursued him. Robert would have gone, if his father had allowed him. Though the town suffered much, it would not surrender. The sun could not shine, for heavy clouds covered the sky. When Cæsar arrived in Britain, he found the enemy ready. When the trees shall have put on their leaves, summer will have come. He might have risen to eminence, if he had studied his profession. The

boy might have obtained the first prize, if he had not neglected his


Up from the ground he sprang, and gazed
But who can paint that gaze ?
It hushed their very hearts who saw
Its horror and amaze:
They might have chained him, as before
That stony form he stood.

LESSON XLV. We can now arrange the Potential and Subjunctive Moods as we did the Indicative in Lesson xl. :



1. I may * love.

1. We may love. 2. Thou mayst love.

2. You may love. 3. He may love.

3. They may love.

1. I may * have loved.

1. We may have loved.
2. Thou mayst have loved. 2. You may have loved.
3. He may have loved.

3. They may have loved.

PAST TENSE. 1. I might + love.

1. We might love. 2. Thou mightst love.

2. You might love. 3. He might love.

3. They might love.

1. I might + have loved.

1. We might have loved.
2. Thou mightst have loved.. 2. You might have loved.
3. He might have loved.

3. They might have loved.

FUTURE TENSE. 1. I should love.

1. We should love. 2. Thou shouldst love.

2. You should love. 3. He should love.

3. They should love.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. I should have loved.

1. We should have loved. 2. Thou shouldst have loved. 2. You should have loved. 3. He should have loved. 3. They should have loved.

* Substitute can and must.

† Substitute could.


1. If I love.
2. If thou love.
3. If he love.


1. If we love.
2. If you love.
3. If they love.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. If I have loved.

1. If we have loved. 2. If thou have loved.

2. If you have loved. 3. If he have loved.

3. If they have loved.


1. If I loved.

1. If we loved. 2. If thou loved.

2. If you loved.
3. If he loved.

3. If they loved.
The other Tenses are the same as in the Indicative Mood.

LESSON XLVI. Write out the Potential and Subjunctive Moods through all the Tenses of these Verbs: to hear, to dress, to drive, to sing.

LESSON XLVII. In the following Exercise, point out those Verbs which express-a command, and those which simply name the action, without making any assertion regarding it :

EXAMPLES.—Depart, I say. Depart expresses a command.—To sing is pleasant. To sing simply names the action, but makes no assertion regarding it.

Depart, and appear no more in my presence. To err is human; to forgive, divine. Tell the child to put away the pen. He told his servant to sit down. Come hither, Evan Cameron. Come, stand beside my knee. Come, all ye jolly shepherds. To wander through the fields in the summer days gives pleasure. To roam among the woods is pleasant. Give her some food. Have by some surgeon to stop his wounds. Prepare thee to cut off the flesh. Go with me to a notary.

DEFINITION I.—When the Verb expresses a command or order, it is said to be in the IMPERATIVE MOOD.

* Compare with Indicative, and show the exact difference.

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