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Note.—The Imperative Mood, from its very nature, can only be used in the present tense and second person.

DEFINITION II.—When the Verb simply names the action, without any limitation, it is said to be in the INFINITIVE MOOD.

Note.—The Infinitive Mood is generally, though not always, preceded by the word to.

LESSON XLVIII. In the following Exercise, point out the Verbs which are in the Imperative and Infinitive Moods respectively :

The general told his soldiers to advance. “Rise,” he cried, “and charge the enemy.” To love one's enemies may appear difficult. I come not here to talk. Cease your evil ways,

I saw
The corse, the mangled corse, and then I cried
For vengeance. Rouse, ye Romans! Rouse, ye slaves !
Have ye brave sons ? Look in the next fierce brawl
To see them die. Have ye fair daughters ? Look
To see them live dishonoured.
Descend, ye Nine! descend and sing,

The breathing instruments inspire;
Wake into voice each silent string,

And sweep the sounding lyre!
To be, or not to be ? that is the question :
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The stings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And, by opposing, end them?

LESSON XLIX. Tell the Person, Number, Tense, and Mood of each Verb in the following Exercise :

When I look upon the tombs of the great, every emotion of envy dies in me; when I read the epitaphs of the beautiful, every inordinate desire goes out. Mary's sufferings exceed those tragical distresses which fancy has feigned, to excite sorrow and commiseration. To us, who dwell* on its surface, the earth is by far the most extensive

* First person-the reason will be given hereafter.

orb that our eyes can anywhere behold. On, then, all Frenchmen that have * hearts in your bodies! Roar with all your throats, ye sons of liberty!

Take away that star and garter,

Hide them from my aching sight;
Neither king nor prince shall tempt me

From my lonely room this night.
In her ear he whispers gaily:
If my heart by signs can tell,
Maiden, I have watched thee daily,
And I think thou lov’st nie well.”

In she plunged boldly,
No matter how coldly
The rough river ran:-
Over the brink of it
Picture it, think of it,
Dissolute man!
Lave in it, drink of it,
Then, if you can!


LESSON L. Examine the Verbs in the following Exercise, and tell whether the subject or nominative acts or is acted upon :

EXAMPLES. —John strikes the table. Strikes shows that the subject (John) acts.---The table is struck. Is struck shows that the subject (table) is acted upon.

James loves his mother. James is loved by his father. The boy struck the horse. The horse was struck by the boy. He bound the prisoners in chains. The prisoners were bound in chains. The king subdued his enemies. The enemies were subdued by the king. The conqueror will send his troops through the province. The troops will be sent through the province. The king may have sold the castle. The castle may have been sold by the king. The palace was guarded by troops of the line. The teacher taught the boys to sing. The children were instructed in fencing. The prodigal was welcomed home by his father. The boy saw a snake in the grass.

* Second person.

One, 'midst the forests of the West,
By a dark stream is laid:
The Indian knows his place of rest,
Far in the cedar shade.

The sea—the blue, lone sea-hath one;
He lies where pearls lie deep:
He was the loved of all-yet none
O'er his low bed may weep.

DEFINITION I.-To denote whether the subject of the Verb acts or is acted upon, the Verb undergoes an inflection or change of form. This inflection or change of form is called VOICE.

DEFINITION II.— When the subject of the Verb acts, the Verb is said to be in the ACTIVE VOICE.

DEFINITION III.- When the subject of the Verb is acted upon, the Verb is said to be in the PASSIVE VOICE.

LESSON LI. We can now represent at one view the complete conjugation* of any Verb in the Active Voice.

THE VERB, To love.-Active Voice.



1. I love.
2. Thou lovest.
3. He loves.

1. We love.
2. You love.
3. They love.


1. We have loved. 2. Thou hast loved.

2. You have loved. 3. He has loved.

3. They have loved.

1. I loved.
2. Thou lovedst.
3. He loved.


1. We loved.
2. You loved.
3. They loved.

* “Conjugation”—from conjungere, "to join together”—means the arrangement of all the inflections of the Verb in regular order.


Plural. 1. I had loved.

1. We had loved. 2. Thou hadst loved.

2. You had loved. 3. He had loved.

3. They had loved.

FUTURE TENSE. 1. I shall or will love.

1. We shall or will love. 2. Thou shalt or wilt love. 2. You shall or will love. 3. He shall or will love.

3. They shall or will love.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. I shall or will have loved. 1. We shall or will have loved. 2. Thou shaltor wilt have loved. 2. You shall or will have loved. 3. He shall or will have loved. 3. They shall or will have loved.



1. I may* love.
2. Thou mayst love.
3. He may love.

1. We may love.
2. You may love.
3. They may love.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I may * have loved.

1. We may have loved. 2. Thou mayst have loved. 2. You may have loved. 3. He may have loved.

3. They may have loved.

1. I might love.
2. Thou mightst love.
3. He might love.


1. We might love.
2. You might love.
3. They might love.

PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I might have loved.

1. We might have loved. 2. Thou mightst have loved. 2. You might have loved. 3. He might have loved.

3. They might have loved.

FUTURE TENSE. 1. I shouldt love.

1. We should love. 2. Thou shouldst love.

2. You should love. 3. He should love.

3. They should love.

* Substitute can and must.

† Substitute would.


1. I should have loved.

1. We should have loved.
2. Thou shouldst have loved. 2. You should have loved.
3. He should have loved.

3. They should have loved.


PRESENT TENSE. 1. If I love.

1. If we love. 2. If thou love.

2. If you love.
3. If he love.

3. If they love.
1. If I have loved.

1. If we have loved.
2. If thou have loved.

2. If you have loved. 3. If he have loved.

3. If they have loved.

[blocks in formation]


........ To love.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE............... To have loved.


PRESENT PERFECT........................... Having loved.

....... Loved.

* “Participle”-from pars, "a part," and capio, I take”-so called because it partakes partly of the nature of the Verb and of the nature of the Adjective.

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