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beaten. The cow gives milk. The hen protects her chickens. The moon has risen. John is loved by his mother. God sees all things. The lamb was carried off by the eagle. Napoleon was defeated by Wellington. The Queen rode through London. The picture hangs on the wall. James broke his leg. The child laughs. The river flows fast. Honey is made by bees. Birds build nests. The grass waves in the sun. The butterfly soars in the sky.

DEFINITION.—Words which tell what anything does, or what is done to it, or in what state it is, are called VERBS.

Verb simply means word. Verbs were so called on account of their great importance.

LESSON VIII. Put a Verb after each of the following Nouns :The man ...... The tree ...... The horse ...... Robert ..... Jane ...... The sun ...... Fire ...... The wind ...... The snow ... ... The house ...... A pigeon ...... A cat ...... Birds ..... The apple ...... The son ...... My sister ....... My brother .....

LESSON IX. Put appropriate Nouns before each of the following Verbs :

.... dances. ...... jumps. ... ... has written a letter. ...... has gone away. ...... caught a rat. ...... worried the cat. ...... will run. sings. ...... plays on the piano. ...... makes a noise. ...... washes the floor. ...... makes boots. ...... cuts the hair. ...... sells sugar. ...... fought. ...... tried a race....... won the battle....... is deep. ...... is sweet. ...... sleeps....... moves.

Write out or name all the Verbs in your reading-lesson.

LESSON XI. Point out all the Nouns and Verbs in the following Exercise :

John gave Mary a beautiful ring. The rain fell in heavy drops. The snow has melted. The Queen has arrived in Edinburgh. James threw a stone into the river. The water flows past. The steam-boat has left the harbour. Vines flourish in France. The camel can live long without water. The horse pricked up his ears. The girl danced along the street. Your sister sleeps in her crib. Children like play. Glasgow has a beautiful cathedral. The man was killed. The ox was slaugh. tered. The boy was drowned in the sea. The ship was wrecked on the shore.


LESSON XII. In the following Exercise, write down or name all the words which tell the kind or the quality of the Noun.

EXAMPLES.—John is a brave boy. The word brave tells you what sort of a boy John is.—He struck the black dog. The word black tells you the colour of the dog.—The high house fell. The word high tells you the kind of house.

The good man gave John a large apple. The black board stands on the clean floor. White paper is used for writing. Fresh water makes a pleasant drink. John loves his little sister. The beautiful, large, black cat lay on the warm rug. The gray horse draws the heavy load. Great burdens weary the patient ass. The poor boy lost his white cravat. The splendid book fell into the deep river. Coals are black. A rainy day gladdens the white ducks. James has a round marble. The table is square. Good things are dear.

LESSON XIII. Point out all the Nouns in your reading-lesson ; and tell which of them has a word joined to them showing their kind or quality.

LESSON XIV. Add a word to each Noun in the following Exercise, to show its kind or quality ;

The ..... gold is lost. The ...... bird sings. The ...... tree has ...... leaves. The ...... cat catches ...... mice. The ...... horse eats ...... corn. The ...... boy lost his ...... pencil. The ...... wind blew down the ...... trees. A ...... house needs ...... furniture. John broke his ..... toy. Boys love ...... toys. The ...... girl loves a ...... doll. Sam has ...... hair. Peter lost his ...... hat. The ...... picture is ..... The ...... clouds float in the ...... sky. The ...... corn was in the ...... fields.

DEFINITION.—Words which are used to express the kind or quality of the Noun are called ADJECTIVES.

Adjective simply means put to, and is so called because it is put to the Noun to express its kind or quality.

Point out the Adjectives in the following Exercise :-

The large black dog has a curly tail. The bright moon shines in the clear sky. Good apples grow in sunny France. The poor traveller lost his way. His withered locks and tresses gray shook in the cold, biting wind. A little boy lost a large book. The good, kind sister sat on a low stool. He had a pair of white gloves on his tiny little hands. Dear, patient, gentle Nell was dead. James sent his dun pony to the large field. The lark comes in early spring and sings a sweet song. The warm fire melted the hard ice from his frozen hands. James had a round marble in his fat hand. White rabbits are found in the cold winter.

LESSON XVI. Write in three columns respectively the Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives occurring in the following Exercise, thus :NOUNS. V ERBS.


Rural sights exhilarate the spirit and restore the tone of languid nature. Cowper's life was melancholy. Milton's poems possess great sublimity. The great globe is a small department of the solar system. Two sudden blows with a rugged stick killed the wretched man. Many dreadful eyes were looking down in blame.

LESSON XVII. In the following Exercise, arrange the Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives as in last Lesson :

Hail, blithesome stranger of the grove,

That comest with the spring!
Now Heaven repairs thy rural seat,

And woods thy welcome sing.
Soon as the daisy decks the green,

Thy certain voice we hear :
Hast thou a star to guide thy path,

Or mark the rolling year?

Delightful visitant! with thee

I hail the time of flowers,
And listen to the music sweet

Of birds among the bowers.

LESSON XVIII. In the following Exercise, arrange the Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives as in last Lesson :

The hardy plants flourished in the bleak country, and produced large quantities of excellent fruit. The rapid river carried away the strong horse and his gallant rider. The lapdog, with the bushy tail, was barking at the wretched old man. The mighty ocean rolls round the great globe.

Little drops of water,

Little grains of sand,
Make the mighty ocean

And the solid land.
The way was long, the wind was cold;
The minstrel was infirm and old.


LESSON XIX. In the following Exercise, write down or name all the words which tell where, when, and in what manner anything was done.

EXAMPLES.—He died there. The word there tells where he died. —He came yesterday. The word yesterday tells when he came. — James dances prettily. The word prettily tells how or in what manner James dances.

He was reading his lesson yesterday. John came afterwards. Jane sings sweetly. You must sit down immediately. Come hither, come hither, my little foot-page. The dog was left behind. The horse pulls firmly. The man swam boldly. I will come again. The wound began to bleed afresh. The stone rolled away into the sea. John's turn comes next. When the king arrived, he glanced sideways. Then he spoke in wrath. Where hast thou been? I have been nowhere. The song went round. Merrily, merrily rang the bells. He paid dearly for his fault. You could scarcely say that she breathed. The struggle will soon cease. Whither goest thou? Whence that noise? The prince fought bravely.

DEFINITION. — Words which tell or express where, when, or in what manner anything is done, are called ADVERBS.

Adverb simply means to the Verb. Adverbs are so called because they are generally put to the Verb to express some circumstance of place, time, or manner regarding it.

LESSON XX. Write down or name all the Adverbs in the following Exercise :

John came home yesterday, and went away to-day. Jane spoke loudly. The king rode swiftly to the battle. Wallace was greatly loved by his followers. Robert Bruce was exceeding brave. The king treated him cruelly. The river runs rapidly. Come here. Go away. Boys are naturally fond of play. The frost was intensely keen. The wind was bitterly cold. The robin sings very sweetly.

LESSON XXI. Write down or name all the Adverbs in your readinglesson.

LESSON XXII. Arrange in four columns the Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs in the following Exercise :

The pleasant breeze blew gently, and fanned his fevered cheek. The sun shone brightly on the calm waters of the ocean. Heavy masses of mist floated lazily across the high mountains. The house was broken into yesterday, and the thief stole the silver plate. The merry little squirrel sat quietly on the branch of a lofty tree. He sang sweetly the old songs of his boyhood. The sailors danced joyously when the gallant ship entered the harbour. The good old king reigned happily over his loyal subjects. The snow covered the ground. The fire burns cheerily in the grate in cold weather. When do you return? To-morrow. Where has the dog been?


LESSON XXIII. In the following Exercise, point out all the words which stand in place of Nouns :

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