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I strolled into the country for an hour or two, and then returned by the main road. Among those who were stirring in the shops I observed my old enemy. He was nursing the baby, and appeared to be a benig. nant member of society.
LESSON LVII. In the following Exercise, point out the position of the Nominative as regards the Verb and its auxiliary :
EXAMPLE. --Did he say so? The Nominative he comes between the Verb and the auxiliary.
Have you written the letter? Will you go into the garden ? Where has the dog been all this time? Had you received the parcel when the man arrived? How many miles is it to the town? Shall the man go now? Came I not here upon thy pledge? Did* your father leave this morning? Does the king know that the battle has been lost? Has the child found its mother? Who broke the jar? To whom did the messenger deliver his message? What envious floods have driven you here?
Death would not be so very beautiful !
And could he die?
A new-found luxury not seen in her. NOTE.-In Interrogative + Sentences, except in those which begin with the Interrogative Pronouns, the Nominative is placed after the Verb, or between the auxiliary and the Verb. In all other respects the conjugation of the Verb in the interrogative form is the same as the ordinary conjugation.
* Point out that do (past tense did is an auxiliary of interrogation as well as of emphasis. It is used as such in the Present and Past Tenses only.
f Interrogative, that asks a question.
Examine the Adjectives in the following Exercise, and point out the changes you observe in each:-
This book is large. This book is larger than yours. This book is the largest of all. This is a high mountain. This mountain is higher; but Ben-Macdhui is the highest in Scotland. The boy's knife is sharp. The doctor's lancet is sharper. This razor is the sharpest of all. Tom is tall, but his sister is taller, while James is the tallest of the three. The river is broader than the broad carriage drive. The Orinoco is the broadest river in the world. Your father may be rich, but mine is richer. The weather is cold, but in Canada it is colder. The day is warm, but by twelve o'clock it will be warmer. The rude man laughed and went away. No ruder sounds shall be near. The loftiest tree, looks small beside that lofty hill.
What change do you observe in the Adjectives large, high, sharp, tall, broad, rich, cold, warm, rude, lofty? Why have go or er, and st or est, been added ?
DEFINITION I.–When the Adjective is used in its simple form, without instituting any comparison, it is said to be in the POSITIVE Degree.
DEFINITION II. — When the Adjective is used to compare the degree in which any quality exists in two objects, it is said to be in the COMPARATIVE Degree.
The Comparative is generally formed by adding r or er to the Positive. DEFINITION III.- When the Adjective is used to express the highest degree of any quality, it is said to be in the SUPERLATIVE Degree.
The Superlative is generally formed by adding st or est to the Positive.
LESSON LIX. Tell the Degree of each Adjective in the following Exercise :
John's rabbit is large, but Jane's is larger. The high hills are covered with snow. The snake drew its long folds through the grass. The shadows grow longer as evening approaches. Great is Diana of the Ephesians. Wellington was the greatest general of his day. He was the fiercest of them all; while his brother was gentle as a lamb. Nelson was brave as a lion-a braver man never lived. Nothing could be smoother than the pebbles on the shore. The squirrel is a merry
little fellow. To-morrow will be the maddest, merriest * day. He will be the happiest boy alive, when he obtains that splendid prize. The gay plumage of the birds puts to shame man's attempts at adornment. John is gayer than his sister. The colour was whiter than the snow. The dark shadows began to ascend.
LESSON LX. Examine the Adjectives in the following Exercise, and tell what words have been prefixed to each to express Degree:
The sun is more brilliant than the moon. He was the most famous poet of ancient times. Nothing can be more gorgeous than the plumage of the bird of Paradise. A virtuous woman is more precious than rubies. He was less skilful than his brother. He was the least useful of all men. The most disagreeable piece of the work fell to my lot. It was a more pleasant day than we had expected. The most interesting exhibition closed yesterday. His manner was less attractive than his brother's. This statement is more rational than that you gave. He was more distinguished than any of his contemporaries. He obtained the most glorious victory of the war. He was more gigantic than Hercules. A most tremendous blaze lighted up the sky.
NOTE.-Some Adjectives of two syllables, and almost all those of more than two, are compared by prefixing the words MORE and MOST, or LESS and LEAST, to the Positive.t
LESSON LXI. The following Adjectives are Irregular in their comparison, and should be committed to memory :Positive. Comparative.
Superlative. bad, evil, or ill, worse,
worst. far, farther,
foremost, or first. good, better,
best. later, or latter, latest, or last. little,
least. much, or many, more,
* Examine this Adjective, and observe what has been done before adding est. No rule is necessary. The same thing has been pointed out in connection with the plural of Nouns.
+ Such Adjectives may be parsed as in the Positive Degree, and more, most, less, least, may be regarded as Adverbs.
Superlative. nearest, or next. oldest, or eldest. uppermost, or upmost. innermost, or inmost. hindermost, or hindmost. outermost. uttermost, or utmost.
LESSON LXII. Tell the Degree of each Adjective in the following Exercise :
Many have lost their lives in battle. He has more money than his brother. The innermost room was always kept locked. It was a stormy night, and the smaller vessels were driven on shore. The hindermost row was caught in the shower. This was the unkindest cut of all. He has the worst temper of any boy in the class. Most men love money. He was careful to avoid the least danger. The most magnificent sight burst upon our view.
Now, my co-mates, and brothers in exile,
Howe'er it be, it seems to me
'Tis only noble to be good;
And simple faith than Norman blood.
LESSON LXIII. Examine the Adverbs in the following Exercise, and tell the Degree of each :
He often went from home. He arrived sooner than we expected. He comes oftener to the house than is desirable. He called louder and louder, but it was all in vain. He fought more bravely than all the others. The sun shines most brightly in this sheltered nook. He jogged along more merrily than any. I could do no more, notwithstanding all my efforts. He sang gaily as he moved away. He remained away longer than he had promised. Matters began to look bad. Higher, higher let us climb.
For seldom sure, if e'er before,
His noble hand had grasped an oar. And nearer fast, and nearer, doth the red whirlwind come. Close on the hounds the hunter came. I little thought, when first I went away, that such a cloud would fall on this house. The wanderer's eye could barely view the delicious scene before him.
NOTE.- Adverbs are compared in the same way as Adjectives.
LESSON LXIV. Parse fully the Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs in the following Exercise :
The wind roared loudly among the stately pines. Merrily, merrily bounds the bark across the foaming sea. The eager look of the child immediately arrested the visitor's attention. The rash vow of Jephthah caused him, doubtless, much sorrow. The lighter bodies easily rose to the surface. Cicero oftener than once dwells on this point with great earnestness. The gray dawn had scarcely appeared, when the man set out on his weary search. They dragged the river, but could never find the body. The sooner you set about your work, the sooner you will finish it. He would have answered more readily had * he heard the question more distinctly. The grass was green above the dead boy's grave, and trodden by feet so small and light, that not a daisy drooped its head beneath their pressure. Through all the spring and summer time, garlands of fresh flowers, wreathed by infant hands, rested on the stone; and when the children came there to change them, lest they should wither and be pleasant to him no longer, their eyes filled with tears, and they spoke low and softly of their poor dead cousin.
There was a time, when meadow, grove, and stream,
To me did seem
* Equivalent to “If he had heard.”