Imágenes de páginas

This is the place, the centre of the grove.
Here stands the oak, the monarch of the wood.

LESSON VIII. Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :

He wished me to pay the debt; a thing* I could by no means do. Honesty is the best policy; a sentiment more frequently repeated than acted upon. There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in our philosophy; a truth frequently forgotten. She was sweet and docile; a thing always to be commended. The soldiers were defeated; a matter of no small moment at that juncture. Your brother reads too fast; a habit which should be corrected. You exhibit too much generosity and forbearance; qualities which are not generally too common. The stranger forgot the correct address ; a position far from pleasant in a strange country. The prophet Jeremiah was carried to Egypt. They burned the temple, the receptacle of so many offerings. Athens, the eye of Greece, mother of arts and learning, was next brought under notice. They buried the child, the daughter of the poor widow, in her father's grave.

RULE VII.- When two Nouns are in apposition in the Possessive Case, the sign of the Possessive is generally attached to the latter only.

LESSON IX. Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :

Cicero the orator's speeches have been preserved. The battle was fought in James the Fourth's reign. He visited his brother and sister's garden. It was Philip the King of Macedon's opinion that gold was more powerful than arms. He promised to meet me at Smith the barber's.t. This measure gained the king's as well as the people's approbation. The soldiers followed Hannibal the general's example, He stood under St. Paul's, and gazed up to the lofty roof. John the bellman's post was no sinecure. The poem is Tennyson's, the greatest living poet.

* A pure case of apposition, where the Noun thing is in apposition to the preceding clause.

† Elliptical. Shop, or some such word, is understood.

RULE VIII.-The Verb To be, Intransitive Verbs, and Transitive Verbs in the Passive Voice have the same case after them as they have before them.

LESSON X. Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :

Cæsar was a great general. The king had been a soldier of fortune. The people declared the king to be a man void of all heart. The boy seems a fool. The food appears to be poison. Nero was proclaimed emperor. John proved a worthy successor to his brother. The man proved the point. The girl becomes a woman. The hat becomes the girl. Cæsar played the tyrant. The sun has turned alchemist. Whom do you imagine him to be?

Round and around the sounds were cast,
Till echo seemed an answering blast.
Some mossy bank my couch must be,

Some rustling oak my canopy. William was surnamed Rufus from the colour of his hair. The theatre was always his delight. The secret cave was long a secure and coveted hiding-place. The voice of antiquity declares Plato to be the greatest philosopher of Greece.

RULE IX.–Pronouns agree in gender, number, and person with the Nouns for which they stand.

LESSON XI. Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :-

His sister ran off, but she was found. The snow fell fast, but it melted as fast. The French retreated, leaving their wounded behind them. His father and mother lost their way. My sister and I had scarcely reached our home when we set off again. * John and you have not learned your lessons: you must try again. My mother told me that I was never to forget her parting counsels. Some plants are peculiar to certain districts: they are always found in them. The people have themselves to blame, if they are not well governed. The mass of water discharged itself on his head. In that hour no man did aid his fellow. You may trust the creature: it can take care of itself. Know thyself.

* In sentences of this nature, the teacher has simply to ask what Pronoun could be substituted for My sister and I, to enable the pupil to observe the usage. Any new rule is superfluous.

LESSON XII. Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :

The sailor was proud of his ship; he called her* a tidy little craft. Why shrinks the soul back on herself? All Nature cries aloud through all her works. The bright sun rises to his course, and all eyes turn towards him. Troy to the commends her future state.

When murder bared her arm, and rampant war
Yoked the red dragons of her iron car.

Then Denmark blessed our chief

That he gave her wounds repose ;
And the sounds of joy and grief

From her people wildly rose. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his + kind.

There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st,
But in his motion like an angel sings.

RULE X.The Relative agrees with its antecedent in gender number, and person.

LESSON XIII. Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :

The man who found the money, restored it. The men, who were found guilty, were sentenced to banishment. The girl, to whom I gave the book, thanked me warmly. The girls, who were caught in the shower, took refuge in the cave. The man sold the horse which I was hurt. The mare, which fell, broke her leg. He carried a load which was too heavy for him. The king, whose army was defeated, surrendered. This is the same book that I saw yesterday. This is the man who broke his vow. The mountains, which rise so high, are his chief attraction. The dog, which bit the boy, was killed. The sea, which washed the shores, was covered with wreck.

* Personification. The sailor thinks of his ship as of his sweetheart, and makes it feminine. So may neuter Nouns become masculine by personification.

† No personification. Its is not found in our translation of the Bible. Exercise :-Make the pupil collect passages where his is used, where we would now use its.

# Which is masculine here.

LESSON XIV. Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :

I, who * speak unto thee, am he. We, who have read the book, can appreciate its merits. I, that denied thee gold, will give my heart. O nightingale, that on yon bloomy spray warblest at eve. Ye gentlemen of England, that live at home at ease.

Departed spirits of the mighty dead,

Ye that at Marathon and Leuctra bled.
Ye good men of the Commons, with loving hearts and true,
Who stand by the bold Tribunes that still have stood by you.

O thou that, with surpassing glory crowned,
Look'st from thy sole dominion like the god
Of this new world.

Ye, who have seen the danger, know the only remedy.

LESSON xv. Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :

The general forbade his men to struggle; which,t in the circumstances, was not to be wondered at. She seemed to pass unnoticed; which I thought strange.

I see thee still !
And on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood,
Which was not so before.

* I is first person, who must be first person, so must the verb speak. As the English verb has no inflection in the plural, the pupil must carefully observe the person of the antecedent in order to know the person of the relative and of the verb. To pupils who know Latin, or any terminational language, the distinction is easy.

† The whole preceding clause is the antecedent-a common enough construc

I am the man who did the deed.* You are the person who is responsible. You, who are responsible, are the person. Thou art not the king who ruled these nations. Thou art not the king who ruledst these nations. Ye are the people who have caused all this confusion. I am the young lady who wrote the poem. The officer, unfortunately, betrayed his trust; which brought ruin on the army. Ye who sing, and ye who pray.

Ye faithful few, by bold affection led,
Who round the Saviour's cross your sorrows shed.


Parse the words in the following Exercise, and apply the Rules :

Who + steals my purse, steals trash.
I dare do all that may become a man;
Who dares do more is none.

Who cannot stay, must away. Ye mariners of England, that guard our native seas. The wind, which had been increasing all day, now suddenly ceased. Those are the true men, who dare to do what is right. He reproved me, who had never committed a fault before. He found fault with those who tried to do their best. He gazed on the scene, and saw the turmoil without agitation; which surprised all who knew his gentle disposition.


RULE XI.-- The Noun, or Pronoun, which stands for the person or thing addressed, is put in the Nominative Case. I

* Ambiguous. This ambiguity arises when the relative is preceded by two antecedents of different persons. The example may mean—“I who did the deed am the man ;” or “I am the man who did the deed”-two very different things, The context alone can decide the meaning. The ambiguity could always be avoided by a proper collocation of the relative..

† The antecedent is frequently omitted, even when the sentence is not interrogative.

This is called the Nominative of Address. It is a great pity that it had not been termed the Vocative Case. It is as much a distinct case as the Objective. Like the Objective, it has no case ending, and is known only by its position.

« AnteriorContinuar »