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EXAMPLES. -I have told the story. The word I stands in place of the person speaking.—John has said his lesson; he may go. The words his and he stand in place of John.
John is a good boy, he has learned his lesson. Jane went a message: she will be back soon. I am to go to-morrow; but thou must remain. The boys went away, because they were frightened. Charles and I ran home: we were tired. James and you were quarrelling. The boys have said their lessons. You should not lose your place. The cat caught a mouse : it sprang upon it and held it by its paws. Fire is pleasant, and it is needful in cold weather. Birds fly through the air : they use their wings.
DEFINITION.-A word which stands in place of a Noun is called a PRONOUN.
Pronoun simply means instead of a Noun.
LESSON XXIV. Write down or name the Pronouns in the following Exercise :
The king sat on his throne: it was made of ivory. The queen walked in her garden with her maids : they wore blue dresses, which were trimmed with lace. The swift river glides past: it makes a pleasant murmur, which soothes the ear. Charles was defeated at Worcester: his soldiers fought bravely, but they could not resist Cromwell's Ironsides. The school has four rooms : they are large. The master gave me an apple, and he said that I was not to eat it until I went home.
I had a little pony,
Her name was Dapple Gray.
To ride a mile away.
LESSON XXV. In the following Exercise, put out the Nouns where they are not required, and substitute the appropriate Pronouns :
John fell on John's head, and cut John's cheek. Cæsar led Cæsar's soldiers to battle, and Cæsar conquered Cæsar's enemies. The soldiers ran to the soldiers' colours; and when the soldiers saw the enemy, the soldiers gave a loud shout. The sun rose with great brightness, and the sun soon scattered the clouds. Charles gave Charles's dog to John: Charles was sorry to part with Charles's dog, but Charles's mother told Charles that Charles could not keep Charles's dog any longer. Mary
dressed Mary's doll, and Mary went to Mary's sewing: when Mary's sewing was over, Mary went to Mary's music. The teacher gave Mary Mary's lesson, and then Mary put on Mary's cloak, and went to Mary's home.
LESSON XXVI. In the following Exercise, substitute the appropriate Noun for each Pronoun:
John gave his watch to be mended : it was kept by the watchmaker ten days. Pompey was a Roman general : he gained many victories. The lark sings sweetly as it flies through the air. John told his sister that she was required by her teacher. She went to her teacher, and he said that John was wrong. When Wellington was in Spain he fought many battles : his soldiers had great confidence in him, and they were never afraid when he was with them. James said that his book was in the book-case; but it was found in his bag. King John refused to hear his barons, when they asked him for a redress of their grievances; but they compelled him to yield. Nature never meant that her secrets should be always hidden: she reveals them to the earnest seeker after them.
LESSON XXVII. Write out or name all the Pronouns in your reading-lesson.
LESSON XXVIII. In the following Exercise, point out in each sentence the two words which are related or connected to one another :
EXAMPLES.—He went into the house. The word house is connected or related to the word went.-Honey is sweet to the taste. The word sweet is related to, or connected with, the word taste.—The son of David. The word David is related to, or connected with, the word son.
He sat on the table. The chair was near the fire. The house was behind the wood. He fell against the wall. He gave no reason for his conduct. He ran with the dog. The cats came to the window. The fruit was pleasant to the eye. He remained outside the house. He stood beyond the river. Man after man came in. He leaped on the bridge. He gazed around the room. The emperor rode on a white
horse. Seated in a carriage, he looked pleased. He stayed in the house till mid-day. The horse leaped over the precipice.
LESSON XXIX. In the following Exercise, point out all those words which show the relation or connection between two other words :
EXAMPLES.—He went into the house. The word into shows the relation between the words went and house.—Honey is sweet to the taste. The word to shows the relation between the words sweet and taste.- The son of David. The word of shows the relation between the words son and David.
John went to London. Solomon was the son of David. The head of the king is large. He sat beside me. Come under my umbrella. He sent him from home. He killed him with the sword. He ran into the garden. John leaped on the ground. Cæsar stood on his head. The castle stood by the side of the river. The eagle flies above the clouds. The mine runs beneath the ground. He ran up the hill. John tumbled down the hill. He swam among the breakers. Homer wrote concerning Troy. John arrived after me. The horse goes before the cart. The boy ran behind the carriage. He stood in the sea. He sent him to ask about the cow.
DEFINITION. Those words which show the relation between two other words in the same sentence are called PREPOSITIONS.
Preposition simply means placed before, because it is placed before one of the two words between which it shows the relation.
LESSON XXX. Write out or name all the Prepositions in the following Exercise :
The cat sat on the mat, and then jumped into the house. When the king went near the horse, he was struck with fear. We must be humble, if we would go to heaven. Reward is given to the labourer. The repetition of the name made known the affection of the man. Truth in the heart is better than truth on the lips. My soul turns towards thee, as the needle points to the Pole. We must return to the dust, from which we were taken. He remained within doors until sundown.
They grew in beauty side by side,
They filled one home with glee-
By mount and stream and sea.
LESSON XXXI. Write out or name all the Prepositions in your readinglesson.
LESSON XXXII. In the following Exercise, point out all the words which join sentences, parts of sentences, or single words together :
EXAMPLES.—I laugh and you sing. The word and joins the sentences I laugh and you sing.—The soldiers having rested, and the king having arrived, the battle commenced. The word and joins the two parts of the sentence, the soldiers having rested and the king having arrived.—You and I must go. The word and joins the two words you and I.
John laughed and Mary cried. The king went away, and the queen remained behind. The horse drew the cart, and the man sat upon it. The father wept, for his son was dead. The sister cannot come if you go away. James sat down, but his sister ran off. I wish that you would stay. The tree lies as it falls. William and Mary ascended the throne. You must go, or you will be punished. He refused to come ; neither would he give any answer. I cannot obey, because you are wrong. I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. Neither you nor I can go. Both you and your sister are invited. Two and two make four; but two and three make five. He rewarded him with a pension and a handsome house. I shall not do it, unless you wish. He did not receive it, though he greatly desired it. We cannot tell whether he will come or not.
DEFINITION.-Words which join sentences, parts of sentences, or single words together, are called CONJUNCTIONS.
Conjunction simply means a joiner, and can always be distinguished from a Preposition by the fact that it joins, while the Preposition shows the relation between two words.
LESSON XXXIII. • Write down or name all the Conjunctions in the following Exercise, and show what they join :
The hills smoke, if He touch them. John came, but Robert left. The king was angry because his soldiers were defeated. The messenger
arrived earlier than was expected. John cannot read, for he has never been taught. No word was spoken, but a deep sound pervades the hollow vale. To him Nature restored peace and calmness. He could eat, though he could not learn. Unless you come, the fun will be spoiled. As he was borne along, his indignation increased. The moonlight shone in so clearly, that she had no need of a candle to guide her. They had the belief that all must know of and rejoice in their joy. I care not whether he come or not. He said they must pay the rent, or quit the house.
No sound of joy or sorrow was heard from either bank;
But friends and foes in dumb surprise,
Stood gazing where he sank.
LESSON Xxxv. In the following Exercise, point out all those words which express surprise, joy, or any sudden emotion of the mind :
EXAMPLES. -Ah! have you come? The word ah expresses surprise. Hurrah! they are coming. The word hurrah expresses joy.
Alas! I am undone. O sir! I find her milder than she was. Lo! here comes my friend. Peace, ho! I bar confusion. Hurrah, hurrah for England ! hurrah for England's Queen! Hush! it is the dead of night. Hark! heard you not the thunder's roar? Alack! the ship is lost. Ah, me! whither shall I go? False wizard, avant! O look! the sun begins to rise. Adieu, adieu ! my native shore fades on my sight. Ha, ha ! that's very well said. She is to be married. Married ? hey! who? Zounds ! only go and I'll swallow your whole shop. She danced at the last ball. Death and fury! danced, do you say?
DEFINITION.—Those words which express surprise, joy, or any sudden emotion of the mind, are called INTERJECTIONS.
Interjection simply means thrown between. Interjections are so called because they are mere utterances thrown between the regular parts of the sentence.