The Navajo Sound System

Portada
Springer Science & Business Media, May 31, 2003 - 212 páginas
The Navajo language is spoken by the Navajo people who live in the Navajo Nation, located in Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States. The Navajo language belongs to the Southern, or Apachean, branch of the Athabaskan language family. Athabaskan languages are closely related by their shared morphological structure; these languages have a productive and extensive inflectional morphology. The Northern Athabaskan languages are primarily spoken by people indigenous to the sub-artic stretches of North America. Related Apachean languages are the Athabaskan languages of the Southwest: Chiricahua, Jicarilla, White Mountain and Mescalero Apache. While many other languages, like English, have benefited from decades of research on their sound and speech systems, instrumental analyses of indigenous languages are relatively rare. There is a great deal ofwork to do before a chapter on the acoustics of Navajo comparable to the standard acoustic description of English can be produced. The kind of detailed phonetic description required, for instance, to synthesize natural sounding speech, or to provide a background for clinical studies in a language is well beyond the scope of a single study, but it is necessary to begin this greater work with a fundamental description of the sounds and supra-segmental structure of the language. Inkeeping with this, the goal of this project is to provide a baseline description of the phonetic structure of Navajo, as it is spoken on the Navajo reservation today, to provide a foundation for further work on the language.
 

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Contenido

Introduction
1
11 The Navajo Inventory
2
12 Vowels
5
13 Phonotactics and Phonemes
7
14 The Young and Morgan Grammers
9
15 The Conventions Used in the Book
10
16 Methods and Data Sets
11
17 Outline of the Book
13
434 Codas in the Stem and Conjunct Domains
98
435 Disjunct Domain Durations
101
44 Vowel Length by Domain
103
45 Stress in the Verb
106
46 Overview of Duration Factors and the Navajo Verb
108
Spectral Analyses
111
51 Navajo Vowels
112
512 Data and Methods
114

Morphology
17
21 Athabaskan Word Structure
18
22 The Position Class Template
20
23 The Athabaskan Verb
23
24 The Disjunct Domain
26
251 Base and Extended Paradigms as the Head of Aux
27
252 Other Conjunct Morphemes
29
262 The Classifiers
30
27 Athabaskan Terminology
32
272 The Peg Elements and the Aux Base
34
273 The Verb Theme and Verb Base
35
28 Summary
37
Phonology
41
31 Phonotactics
42
32 Syllable Structure
45
322 Stem Alternations
47
33 Consonant Harmony
49
331 Harmony in the Aux Domain
50
34 Fricative and Glide Reflexes
53
35 Conjunct Alternations
58
352 The Qualifier Alternations
59
36 Boundary Effects
60
362 Morphophonemic DAux Boundary Alternations
62
37 Metathesis of J
64
38 Conclusion
65
Duration and Timing
67
41 Domain Durations
68
42 Duration Patterns in the Stems
72
422 Duration Measurements in Nouns
75
423 The Stem Stops
79
424 The Augmentative
86
425 Verb Stem
87
43 Conjunct and Disjunct Durations
92
432 Conjunct Nasals
95
433 Conjunct Glides
97
513 Vowel Space in Stems
115
514 Nasal Stem Vowels
120
516 The Default Vowel and the Noun Prefixes
123
517 Vowel Coarticulation
125
518 Summary of Vowel Data
127
52 The Fricative Contrasts
128
521 Methods
129
the Voicing Contrast
137
53 The Back Fricative
143
531 The Syllablefinal H
145
532 The Acoustic Patterns of the Back Fricatives
147
533 The Aspirated Plain Stops tx and kx
155
534 Aspiration in Affricatives
156
54 Summary of Fricatives
159
How to use Young and Morgans The Navajo Language
163
62 The Grammar
165
621 The Verb
167
622 Epenthetic Elements
169
623 Verb Themes
170
624 The Verb Prefixes
171
625 Aspectual Grammar Neuter Verbs and Time
173
631 The Model Paradigms
174
633 The Model Paradigms of the Verb
176
634 The Classificatory Verbs
180
64 The Dictionary
183
641 Explaining the Paradigms in the Dictionary
185
65 Summary
188
Conclusion 70 The Navajo Sound System
191
Navajo Wordlists
193
Wordlist 2 Tone Contrasts
196
Wordlist 3 Prestem Complex
197
Bibliography
199
Index of Subjects
207
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