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CYCLOPÆDIA OF AMERICAN
HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES
AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE LIVES OF THE FOUNDERS, BUILDERS, AND DEFENDERS
DISTINGUISHED BIOGRAPHERS, SELECTED FROM EACH STATE
STATESMEN OF THE DAY
COPYRIGHT, 1891, BY JAMES T. WHITE & COMPANY.
[All rights reserved.]
Astor, Lenox and Tiiden
THE NATIONAL CYCLOPÆDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY.
PROMINENT CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS.
Abbott, Lyman, D. D., LL. D.,
Pastor of Plymouth Church, and Editor of “The
Author of "Dialect Ballads."
President of Cornell University.
Ex-General Southern Confederacy.
President of Brown University.
Author “ History of Georgia.” Ballantine, William G., D. D.,
President Oberlin College.
University City of New York.
President of Dartmouth College.
Late President of University of N. C.
Writer and Economist. Brainard, Ezra, LL. D.,
President of Middlebury College, Vt. Brean, Hon. Joseph A.,
Supt. Public Instruction, Louisiana. Brooks, Noah,
Journalist and Author.
Author - History of Kentucky."
Editor “ Hartford Times.”
President Emory College, Ga.
President Tufts College.
President Williams College.
Ex-President Lafayette College.
Formerly Editor “ Boston Journal.” Clarke, Richard H., LL. D.,
President New York Catholic Protectory.
President Interstate Commerce Commission.
President Fisk University, Crawford, Edward F.,
Staff " New York Tribune."
Curtis, George Ticknor, LL. D.,
Author and Jurist.
Rector Trinity Church.
President Roanoke College.
President Georgetown College, Ky.
Editor “Chicago Times."
Historian of the West.
President Yale University.
Governor of Arkansas.
Author and Editor.
President Harvard University.
President Girard College.
Editor “New York Evangelist.”
Professor of Divinity, Yale University. Garrison, Wendell Phillips,
“Evening Post." Gates, Merrill E., Ph. D., LL. D.,
President Amherst College. Gilman, Daniel C., LL. D.,
President Johns Hopkins College. Greeley, Gen. A. W.,
United States-Signal-Service and Exp cror. Hadley, Arthur T:,M. A',
Professor Yale University.
President Central College.
Of the “ Philadelphia Inquirer." Harper, W. R.,
President University of Chicago.
United States Commissioner of Education.
Professor Trinity College. Haskins, Charles H.,
Professor University of Wisconsin. Higginson, Col. Thomas Wentworth,
PROMINENT CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS.
Hurst, John F., D. D.,
Bishop of the M. E. Church.
Of the Washington Post."
President Bowdoin College.
President Muskingum College. Jackson, James McCauley,
Author and Editor. Johnson, Oliver,
Author and Editor. Johnson, R. Underwood,
Assistant Editor “Century." Kell, Thomas,
President St. John College.
Editor “ New Englander and Yale Review."
Bishop of California. Kirkland, Major Joseph,
Literary Editor “Chicago Tribune." Knox, Thomas W.,
Author and Traveler. Lamb, Martha J.,
Editor “Magazine of American History." Langford, Laura C. Holloway,
Editor and Historical Writer. Le Conte, Joseph, LL. D.,
Professor in Üniversity of California. Lindsley, J. Berrien, M. D.,
State Board of Health of Tennessee.
Chancellor of University of the City of New York. McClure, Col. Alexander K.,
Editor “Philadelphia Times." McCray, D. O.,
Historical Writer. McElroy, George B., D. D., Ph. D., F. S.,
President Adrian College. McIlwaine, Richard, D. D.,
President Hampden-Sidney College. McKnight, H. W., D. D.,
President Pennsylvania College. Morse, Joun..., Jr.
Author. Life oledohr: Adams.: etc; Newton; Richård Heber, D:D.;
Clergymast and Author: Nicholls, Miss:B.B:
Biographical and Historieål riter, Northrup..yrus, IL::D.; :
President thiversity or vpionesota. Olson, Julius E.,
Professor University of Wisconsin. Packard, Alpheus S.,
Professor Brown University. Page, Thomas Nelson,
President Princeton College.
Provost University of Pennsylvania.
Porter, Noah, D. D., LL. D.,
Ex-president of Yale University.
President Hobart College.
Master'Workman, Knights of Labor. Prime, Edward D. G., D. D.,
Editor “New York Observer." Prince, L. Bradford,
Governor New Mexico. Prowell, George R.,
Historical Writer. Ryder, Rev. Charles J.,
Secretary of American Missionary Society..
President Haverford College.
President Franklin College. Shearer, Rev. J. B.,
D. D., President Davidson College, N.C. Small, Albion W., Ph. D.,
President Colby University: Smith, Charles H. (Bill Arp),
Author. Smith, George Williamson, D. D., LL. D.,
President Trinity College. Smith, William W., LL. D.,
President Randolph-Macon College. Snow, Louis Franklin,
Professor Brown University.
Professor Political Economy, Yale.
President Ohio University. Swank, James W.,
Secretary American Iron and Steel Association. Tanner, Edward A., D.D.,
President I linois College. Taylor, James M., D. D.,
President Vassar College. Thurston, Robert H.,
Director Sibley College. Thwing, Charles F., D. D.,
President Western Reserve University. Tuttle, Herbert, LL. D.,
Professor Cornell University. Tyler, Lyon G.,
President College of William and Mary.
President Boston University.
Editor “ Louisville Courier-Journal." Webb, Gen. Alexander S., LL. D.,
President College of the City of New York.
President Alleghany College. Winchell, Alexander,
Late Professor University of Michigan. Wise, John S.,
Ex-Congressman from Virginia. Wright, Marcus J.,
Historian and Custodian of Confederate Records
in United States War Department.
ADAMS, John, second president of the United tion, rapidly became popular and respected. On Oct. States, was born in Braintree, Mass., Oct. 30, 1735. 25, 1764, Mr. Adams was married to Abigail Smith, He was the great-grandson of Henry Adams, a Pu- a daughter of the minister at Weymouth, and a perritan, who emigrated from England to Massachu- son rather above him in social position. She proved setts in 1640. His father, John Adams, was a dea- a good wife and mother and made his home a happy con of the church and a selectman. His mother, one. In the same year as his marriage, Mr. Adams Susanna Boylston, was a daughter of Peter Boylston, was chosen selectman and assessor and overseer of Brookline, Mass. The father was a farmer of of the poor of the town of Braintree, and he now small means and also a shoemaker, but he managed began to interest himself in politics. He was selected to give his son, being the eldest, the benefit of an as one of the counsel of the town of Boston, with education at Harvard, from which he was gradu- Jeremiah Gridley, the head of the bar, and James ated in 1755, and soon after received his degree Otis, the famous orator, who took the stand that of Bachelor of Arts and went to Worcester, Mass., the unpopular stamp act was void, because parliawhere he became a teacher in the grammar school. ment had no right to tax the colonies. The repeal
He was ambitious, and if he had of this act soon after ended the matter. About this possessed the recessary influence time Adams began to write on taxation in the Boswould have entered the army. He ton “Gazette," and soon some of his arguments were also thought somewhat of making reprinted in the London papers. In 1768 he removed theology his profession; at the to Boston, and two years later was elected to the gensame time his mind turned nat- eral court, though at the same time he was retained urally to politics. When in his to defend Capt. Preston for his share in the Boston twenty-first year he wrote a letter massacre, the latter being acquitted in spite of the to a friend, containing the follow- great prejudice existing in regard to the affair. In ing: “Soon after the Reforma- the general court he began to be considered a leader tion, a few people came over into of the patriot party. Though he soon resigned, he the new world for conscience' was consulted on all important matters by Gov. sake. Perhaps this apparently Hutchinson. On the organization of the first Contitrivial incident may transfer the nental congress, which met at Philadelphia in 1774, great seat of empire into Amer. Mr. Adams was one of the five members who repreica. It looks likely to me; for if sented Massachusetts. Of this gathering he wrote:
you can remove the turbulent gal- “It is such an assembly as never before came to. licks, our people, according to the exactest computa- gether on a sudden in any part of the world. Here tions, will in another century become more numerous are fortunes, abilities, learning, eloquence, acutethan England itself. Should this be the case, since ness, equal to any I ever met with in my life. Here we have, I may say, all the naval stores of the is a diversity of religions, educations, manners, internation in our hands, it will be easy to obtain the mas- ests, such as it would seem impossible to unite in one tery of the seas, and then the united force of all Eu- line of conduct.” The battle of Bunker Hill rerope will not be able to subdue us. The only way moved the last shadow of a doubt in the mind of Mr. to keep us from setting up for ourselves is to disu- Adams concerning the policy of insisting for the funite us. Divide et impera. Keep us in distinct col- ture upon the possibility of reconciliation, and he onies, and then some great men in each colony de- became convinced that this could not be accomsiring the monarchy of the whole, they would destroy plished. He accordingly addressed himself with each other's influence and keep the country in spirit to the work of stimulating congress to take equilibria.” In October, 1758, Adams gave up teach- the most decisive measures in preparation for the ining school at Worcester, and having already studied evitable conflict. This congress substantially delaw was admitted to the bar, and possessing a clear, clared war against England by appointing a commitgonorous voice, fluency of speech, and quick concep- tee of safety, seizing the provincial revenues, ap