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THE FIFTH READER.
Articulation is the utterance of the various vocal sounds represented by letters, and combinations of letters, in syllables.
A Vowel is a letter which represents a free and uninterrupted sound of the human voice.
A Consonant is a letter which cannot be sounded, or but imperfectly, without the aid of a vowel.
A Letter is not itself a sound, but only the sign of a sound. The whole number of English sounds, which, for convenience, may be classed as “ Elementary," or essentially simple, is forty-four. They are those indicated in the following tables of vowels and consonants (in large type); also, that of A long before R, and A intermediate. Some of these, however, are by some authors regarded as compound sounds.
Some of the letters represent several elementary sounds, and an elementary sound is sometimes represented by more than one letter. i
An Equivalent is a letter, or a combination of letters, used to represent an elementary sound more appropriately represented by another letter or letters.
The equivalents given in the following tables are those of most common occurrence.
TABLE OF VOWEL SOUNDS.
This table is designed for an exercise upon the vowel elements. These should be pronounced alone as well as in combination with the words given as exam. ples. Let the class first pronounce the table in order, thus : A long, Fate, ā; A short, Fat, ă, &c.; then pronounce the column of elements alone,
Remarks on the sounds of the letters will be found on page 1; also, under the Exercises on the vowel and the consonant sounds.
The following vowel sounds cannot be easily pronounced alone, as distinct elements, so as to be distinguished from some of the other sounds. See re, marks on a long before r, a intermediate, and on the obscure sounds, page 5.
NAME. A long before R.... Färe, páir. I slight or obscure. Ruin, ability. A intermediate .... last, bránch. O slight or obscure. Actor, confesse A slight or obscure . . Liar, palace. | U slight or obscure. Sulphụr famous E like A long before R Hêir, there. Y slight or obscure. Truly, envy. E slight or obscure . . Brier, fuel.
TABLE OF CONSONANT ØJTT S.
This table should be treated by the class in the same manner as the table of vowel sounds. The sound of a consonant may be ascertained by pronouncing a word containing it in a slow and forcible manner.
Vocal Consonants are those uttered with a slight degree of vocality, but less than that of a vowel. They are formed with a vibration of the vocal chords.
Aspirate Consonants are those in which the pure breath alone is heard
Did d R (untrilled) Nor G hard
g TH soft Thine
S soft, like z
C soft, like 8
X like ks
Q has the sound of k, and is always followed by u, which, in this position, com monly has the sound of w, but is sometimes silent.
WH is an aspirated w, pronounced as if written hw.
1 Sometimes called Subvocals, or Subtonics.
2 H sounded before a vowel, is an expulsion of the breath after the organ are in a position to sound the vowel.
EXERCISES ON THE VOWEL SOUNDS.
In pronouncing the words in the following exercises, special attention should be given to the precise sound of the letters Italicized. The sounds of the let ters in Italics are the same as the sound of the vowel at the head of the paragraph. a, long, as in fāte. — Blame, sail, obey, cambric, ancient,
vein, weigh, patron, lava, patriot. a, short, as in făt. — Bad, had, can, cannon, fancy, plaid,
hove, scath, inhabit, companion, national. a, Italian, as in fär. — Are, guitar, mart, alarm, father,
heart, hearth, guard, daunt, haunt, gauntlet, jaundice. a, broad, as in fall; and o, as in nör.- Ball, tall, form,
storm, salt, ought, fought, auger, awful, water, author,
always, cause, lawyer, balsam, bauble. a', as in fáre; and e, as in there. — Dare, rare, pair, air,
share, bear, snare, where, heir, stare, pare. a ?, as in fast. — Blast, chance, trance, branch, grasp, graft,
grant, grass, class, mastiff, pasture, plaster, chancellor. e, long, as in mēte; and i, as in marîne. — Theme, scene,
ravine, pique, key, fiend, grieve, treaty, Cæsar, critique,
belief, receive, receipt, quay, lenient, inherent. e, short, as in mět. - Bed, bread, tepid, said, says, friend,
leopard, preface, heroism, heifer, again, realm, many, any,
get, yes, chest, beneficent. i, long, as in pīne; and y, as in bý.- Vine, child, fly,
height, type, isle, buy, satiety, guide, guile, flight, ally,
apply, tiny, sinecure. i, short, as in pin ; and y, as in myth.— Prince, quince,
lyric, servile, agile, busy, business, sieve, cygnet, cynic,
cylinder, Italian, tribune 0, long, as in note.— Dome, glory, more, both, oath, foe,
dough, glow, yeoman, beau, coeval, encroach. 03, short, as in not. — Rob, sob, dot, got, was, wand, watch,
from, prompt, prospect, fossil, docile.