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tions as the state board of education may adopt, the work of all assistant superintendents of public instruction, and such other appointees and employees of the board as may be provided by law.

The board shall meet every three months at such times as it may by resolution determine, and special meetings may be called by the president. Upon the request of any two members in writing the secretary shall call a special meeting. Notice of each meeting shall- be given by the secretary by registered mail to each member of the board at Jeast ten days prior to the time of any meeting, unless notice of such meeting is waived in writing by all members of the board. The concurrence of the majority of all the members of the state board shall be necessary to the validity of any of its acts. (Amendment approved 1915; Stats. 1915, p. 751.).

Legislation & 1518. 1. Enacted March 12, 1872. 2. Amended by Stats. 1913, p. 659. 3. By Stats. 1915, p. 751.

§ 1518a. Annual meeting regarding normal schools. Annually, at such time as may be determined by the rules of the board, a meeting shall be held to consider and act upon matters pertaining to the several normal schools of the state. To such meeting, to submit and discuss matters affecting the several normal schools of the state, each normal school may send the president of the school. The actual and necessary expenses incurred by such officials in attending such meeting may be audited and paid in the same manner as are other bills for the maintenance of the normal school.

Legislation § 1518a. Added by Stats. 1915, p. 751. § 1519. Powers of state board of education. The powers and duties of the state board of education shall be as follows:

Adopt rules. Rules for normal schools. First-To adopt rules and regulations not inconsistent with the laws of this state for its own government, for the government of its appointees and employees, for the government of the day and evening elementary schools, the day and evening secondary schools, the technical and vocational schools of the state, for the government of the several normal schools of the state as hereinafter provided, and for the government of such other schools, excepting the University of California, as may receive in whole or in part financial support from the state. Such rules and regulations shall be published for distribution as soon as practicable after adoption.

At the joint meeting of this board and the representatives of the normal schools of the state provided for in section 1518a of the Political Code, matters affecting the normal schools may be presented by members of the board, by the superintendent of public instruction and the commissioners of education, and by the representatives of the normal schools, and, after due presentation and consideration, the board may adopt rules and regulations for the government of the normal schools in the following matters:

(a) Standardizing courses of instruction. The standardizing, as far as the board shall deem it wise and necessary, of the courses of instruction offered in the several normal schools for the preparation of teachers for the public schools of the state.

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(b) Courses for special teachers. The establishing and conducting in any or all of the normal schools of the state of such courses of instruction as shall prepare for the public schools of the state special teachers in any or all of the subjects of drawing, music, physical culture, and commercial, technical or industrial branches.

(c) List of text-books. The compiling and publishing of a list of text-books for use by the students of the several normal schools of the state; provided, that the state series of text-books shall be used in the grades and classes for which they are adapted, and that all other regular text-books shall be selected by the various normal school authorities from said list.

(d) Standards of admission. The prescribing of the standards of admission for students entering the normal schools, and the rules for transfer of pupils from one normal school to another; provided, that a student for good cause, may, upon recommendation of the president of the school from which he seeks to be transferred, enter any other normal school and without examinations be admitted to classes corresponding to those in the school which he has left.

(e) Graduation. The determination of the time and standards for graduation from the state normal schools.

Subpoenas for witnesses before board. Second-To issue subpoenas to compel the attendance of witnesses before the board, or any member thereof, in the same manner that any court in this state may; and whenever the testimony of any witness upon any matter pending before it is material, the president must cause the attendance of the witness before such board, or a member thereof, to testify concerning such matter, and the board may make a reasonable allowance therefor, not exceeding the fees of witnesses in civil cases, which must be paid for out of the appropriation for the contingent expenses of the board, but in no instance can an allowance be made in favor of a witness who appears in behalf of a claimant.

Official seal. Third-To adopt and use, in, authentication of their acts, an official seal.

Assistant superintendents of public instruction. Fourth-To appoint three assistant superintendents of public instruction, who shall not be subject to the provisions of any civil service law of the state, and who shall be known and designated as follows:

(a) One commissioner of elementary schools, who shall be experienced in teaching in and supervising elementary schools.

(b) One commissioner of secondary schools, who shall be experienced in teaching and who has been principal or supervisor of secondary schools.

(c) One commissioner of industrial and vocational education who has had experience as a supervisor of industrial or vocational education.

(11) The state board of education shall study the educational conditions and needs of the state; shall make plans for the improvement of the administration and efficiency of the public schools of the state; shall have power to conduct educational investigations and shall employ educational and business experts, within the limits of its appropriation therefor; shall annually require reports as to the activities of the superintendent of public instruction and the assistant superintendents, and

such other employees as it may direct to report, for submission to the governor, and the same shall submit biennially, to the governor, on or before the fifteenth day of September next preceding the regular session of the legislature, a report of its transactions for the preceding two years, together with recommendations of its needs for the coming biennium, and such recommendations as to changes in laws or new educational legislation as may seem to it to be necessary.

Credentials for certificate for high school teaching. Fifth-(a) To prescribe by general rule the credentials upon which persons may be granted certificates to teach in the high schools of this state. No credentials shall be prescribed or allowed, unless the same, in the judgment of said board, are the equivalent of a diploma of graduation from the University of California, and are satisfactory evidence that the holder thereof has taken an amount of pedagogy equivalent to the minimum amount of pedagogy prescribed by the state board of education of this state, and include a recommendation for a high school certificate from the faculty of the institution in which the pedagogical work shall have been taken.

(b) Applicants without above credentials. To consider the cases of individual applicants who have taught successfully for a period of not less than twenty school months, and who are not possessed of the credentials prescribed by the board under the provisions of this section. The said board, in its discretion, may issue to such applicants special creden. tials upon which they may be granted certificates to teach in the high schools of the state. In such special cases, the board may take cognizance of any adequate evidence of preparation which the applicants may present. The standard of qualification in such special cases shall not be lower than that represented by the other credentials named by the board under the provisions of this section.

(c) Qualifications for special certificate for special subjects. To establish and prescribe by general regulations the qualifications upon which county boards of education may grant to any person a special certificate to teach any special subject or subjects in such grades as are mentioned therein; provided, that no qualification shall be prescribed for certification to teach in any grade, whatever, a vocational subject unless the candidate shall have had, as a minimum, three years' experience as a journeyman, or (where this terminology does not apply) its equivalent, in the vocation in which he desires certification.

(d) Applicants without above qualifications. To consider the cases of individual applicants who are not possessed of the qualifications prese ribed in paragraph (c) of this section, or in the general regulations of the state board of education, and when the state board of education is satisfied that any applicant possesses qualifications equivalent to those so specified, it may issue to such applicant a state board credential upon which county boards of education may grant to him a special certificate to teach such special subject or subjects as are listed in said credential in such grades and for such length of time as therein specified.

(e) Life diplomas. To grant life diplomas of four grades, valid throughout the state, as follows:

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(1) High school: Authorizing the holder to teach in any primary or grammar or high school.

(2) Grammar school: Authorizing the holder to teach in any primary or grammar school.

(3) Kindergarten-primary: Authorizing the holder to teach in the kindergarten class of any primary school.

(4) Special: Authorizing the holder to teach in any school such special branches and in such grades as are named in such diploma.

(f) Qualifications for life diplomas. Fee. To issue, except as provided in sections 1503 and 1775 of this code, life diplomas only to such persons as have held for one year, and still hold, a valid county, or city and county, certificate, corresponding in grade to the grade of diploma applied for, and who shall furnish satisfactory evidence of having had a successful experience in teaching of at least forty-eight months. Not less than twenty-one months of said experience shall have been in the public schools of California. Every application must be accompanied to the state board of education by a certified copy of a resolution adopted by at least a three-fourths vote of all the members composing a county, or city and county, board of education, recommending that the diploma be granted, and also by an affidavit of the applicant, specifically setting forth the places in which, and the dates between which, said applicant has taught. The application for any credentials or diploma or document mentioned in this chapter must also be accompanied by a fee of two dollars, which fee must be paid into the state treasury to the credit of the appropriation for the expenses of the state board of education and used for the purpose of defraying the expense of issuing the credential, document or diploma.

(g) Revocation of life diplomas. To revoke or suspend for immoral or unprofessional conduct, or for evident unfitness for teaching, life diplomas, documents issued under the provisions of sections 1,503 and 1775 of this code, or credentials issued in accordance with subdivision two of this section; and to adopt such rules for said revocation as they may deem expedient or necessary.

(h) Printing by state printer. To have done by the state printer, or other officer having the management of the state printing, any printing required by it; provided, that all orders for printing shall first be approved by the state board of control.

Compile text-books. Sixth-To compile in whole, or in part, and to manufacture such text-books as are now in use; to compile, or cause to be compiled, and manufacture such other additional text-books or books, as it may deem necessary or proper for use in the elementary schools of the state, as provided by section 1665 of the Political Code; to purchase books when necessary, or lease plates, maps, engravings or copyright matter for use in manufacturing such text-books; contract for, or lease copyrights for use in compiling, printing or publishing such books; to provide for the payment of royalties or for the leasing of plates or making the whole or any part of a book, and to do any or all things that may be necessary for the purpose of procuring a uniform series of text-books for use in the elementary day and evening schools of the state.

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Contracts for use of plates, maps, etc. Seventh-Whenever any plates,
maps, or engravings of any publisher or author are adopted for use,
or whenever any books have been purchased, as hereinbefore provided,
the state board of education shall enter into a contract for not less
than four years nor more than eight years for the use of the same in
the elementary day and evening schools of the state, and shall require
a good and sufficient bond of the owner or owners of such books, plates,
maps or engravings under a written guaranty that the same shall be
kept revised and free from all errors and up to date as may be required
by the state board of education.

Copyrights. Uniform use of text-books adopted. Eighth-The state
board of education may secure copyrights in the name of the people of
the state of California, to any book that may be compiled. Whenever
any one or more of the state text-books shall have been compiled or
purchased, published and adopted, the superintendent of public instruc-
tion, on the order of the state board of education shall issue an order
to all county, city, city and county school superintendents by sending
notices by registered mail to said superintendents who in turn shall
notify the secretaries of all boards of education in the cities and the
clerk of the board of school trustees and the teacher or principal in
each school district, requiring the uniform use of such book, in the
grades of the elementary day and evening schools for which they have
been adopted, and when such order has thus been given and published,
the same shall remain in force and effect for a term of not less than
four nor' more than eight years; provided, that such order for the uniform
use of such book, shall not take effect until the beginning of the next
fiscal year; namely, the first of July next following the issue of the
order, or at such time thereafter as may be fixed by the state board
of education; provided, that the book shall go into use at the beginning

of a fiscal year.

When a book has been adopted, the state board of education shall enforce the uniform use of such book, in the elementary day and evening schools for which said book has been adopted.

Refusal to use state text-books. Ninth-Any teacher, or city, county,'
or city and county superintendent of schools or any board of education,
refusing or neglecting to use said series of state text-books at the time
required in the last preceding subdivision of this act, shall be guilty
of a misdemeanor, and upon proof thereof of such refusal or neglect,
shall be subject to a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars for each
offense; provided, that nothing herein contained shall in any way re-
strict the additional use of such books as are now provided in section
1112 of the Political Code.

Duties of superintendent of state printing. Tenth-The superintendent
of

state printing shall have supervision of all of the mechanical work
connected with the printing of such books as may be compiled and
adopted subject to the approval of the state board of education or
such representative of the state board of education as may be appointed
to supervise such work. The superintendent of state printing shall
print and bind such books in lots of not less than five thousand and
turn them over to the state board of education at the warehouse, and
receive payment therefor on the approval of the items of said cost

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