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ho shall have voted for the commissioner or auditor whose place is to be Ted. 18

ARTICLE XV.

CITIES AND CITY CHARTERS.

SECTION 1. Cities may be chartered whenever a majority of the electors any town or borough having a population of at least ten thousand shall te at any general election in favor of the same.

SEC. 2. No debt shall be contracted or liability incurred by any municipal mmission, except in pursuance of an appropriation previously made therefor the municipal government.

SEC. 3. Every city shall create a sinking fund, which shall be inviolably dged for the payment of its funded debt.

ARTICLE XVI.

PRIVATE CORPORATIONS.

SECTION 1. All existing charters, or grants of special or exclusive privies, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place and siness been commenced in good faith at the time of the adoption of this nstitution, shall thereafter have no validity.

SEC. 2. The General Assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the char· of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend the same, or pass y other general or special law for the benefit of such corporation, except on the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter ject to the provisions of this Constitution.

SEC. 3. The exercise of the right of eminent domain shall never be ridged or so construed as to prevent the General Assembly from taking the perty and franchises of incorporated companies, and subjecting them to blic use, the same as the property of individuals; and the exercise of the ice power of the State shall never be abridged or so construed as to pert corporations to conduct their business in such manner as to infringe ⚫ equal rights of individuals or the general well-being of the State.

SEC. 4. In all elections for directors or managers of a corporation each amber or shareholder may cast the whole number of his votes for one canlate, or distribute them upon two or more candidates, as he may prefer,

SEC. 5. No foreign corporation shall do any business in this State witht having one or more known places of business and an authorized agent agents in the same upon whom process may be served.

SEC. 6. No corporation shall engage in any business other than that exssly authorized in its charter, nor shall it take or hold any real estate except ch as may be necessary and proper for its legitimate business.

SEC. 7. No corporation shall issue stocks or bonds except for money, or done, or money or property actually received; and all fictitious increase stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and indebtedness of corrations shall not be increased except in pursuance of general law, nor witht the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of the ck, first obtained at a meeting to be held after sixty days' notice given pursuance of law.

SEC. 8. Municipal and other corporations and individuals invested with › privilege of taking private property for public use shall make just comsation for property taken, injured or destroyed by the construction or largement of their works, highways or improvements, which compensation ll be paid or secured before such taking, injury or destruction. The Genl Assembly is hereby prohibited from depriving any person of an appeal >m any preliminary assessment of damages against any such corporations individuals made by viewers or otherwise; and the amount of such dames in all cases of appeal shall on the demand of either party be determined a jury according to the course of the common law.

18 Amendment proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1907, re-adopted by the islature of 1909, and ratified at the election of Nov. 2, 1909.

SEC. 9. Every banking law shall provide for the registry and countersigning, by an officer of the State, of all notes or bills designed for circulation, and that ample security to the full amount thereof shall be deposited with the Auditor General for the redemption of such notes or bills.

SEC. 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to alter, revoke or annul any charter of incorporation now existing and revokable at the adoption of this Constitution, or any that may hereafter be created, whenever in their opinion it may be injurious to the citizens of this Commonwealth. in such manner, however, that no injustice shall be done to the corporators, No law hereafter enacted shall create, renew or extend the charter of more than one corporation.

SEC. 11. No corporate body to possess banking and discounting privileges shall be created or organized in pursuance of any law without three mouths previous public notice, at the place of the intended location, of the intention to apply for such privileges, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, nor shall a charter for such privilege be granted for a longer period than twenty years.

SEC. 12. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose, or any individual, shall have the right to construct and maintain lines of telegraph within this State, and to connect the same with other lines, and the General Assembly shall, by general law of uniform operation, provide reasoLable regulations to give full effect to this section. No telegraph company shall consolidate with, or hold a controlling interest in the stock or bonds of, any other telegraph company owning a competing line, or acquire, by purchase or otherwise, any other competing line of telegraph.

SEC. 13. The term "corporations," as used in this article, shall be cote strued to include all joint-stock companies or associations having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships.

ARTICLE XVII.

RAILROADS AND CANALS.

SECTION 1. All railroads and canals shall be public highways, and al railroad and canal companies shall be common carriers. Any association corporation organized for the purpose shall have the right to construct and operate a railroad between any points within this State, and to connect st the Stateline with railroads of other States. Every railroad company shal have the right with its road to intersect, connect with or cross any other railroad; and shall receive and transport each the other's passengers, tonna2 and cars loaded or empty, without delay or discrimination.

SEC. 2. Every railroad and canal corporation organized in this State shali maintain an office therein where transfers of its stock shall be made, and where its books shall be kept for inspection by any stockholder or creditor of such corporation, in which shall be recorded the amount of capital stork subscribed or paid in, and by whom, the names of the owners of its stock and the amounts owned by them, respectively, the transfers of said stock, ami the names and places of residence of its officers.

SEC. 3. All individuals. associations and corporations shall have so I right to have persons and property transported over railroads and canals, onl no undue or unreasonable discrimination shall be made in charges for, at in facilities for, transportation of freight or passengers within the State coming from or going to any other State. Persons and property transportel over any railroad shall be delivered at any station at charges not exceed ing the charges for transportation of persons and property of the same eise in the same direction to any more distant station; but excursion and ecomutation tickets may be issued at special rates.

SEC. 4. No railroad, canal or other corporation, or the lessees, purchasers or managers of any railroad or canal corporation, shall consolidate the stock. property or franchises of such corporation with, or lease, or purchase the weeks or franchises of, or in any way control any other railroad or emal vers poration owning or having under its control a parallel or competing line:

or shall any officer of such railroad or canal corporation act as an officer f any other railroad or canal corporation owning or having the control of parallel or competing line; and the question whether railroads or canals re parallel or competing lines shall, when demanded by the party comlainant, be decided by a jury as in other civil issues.

SEC. 5. No incorporated company doing the business of a common carrier hall, directly or indirectly, prosecute or engage in mining or manufacturing rticles for transportation over its works; nor shall such company directly or directly engage in any other business than that of common carriers, or old or acquire lands, freehold or leasehold, directly or indirectly, except ch as shall be necessary for carrying on its business; but any mining or anufacturing company may carry the products of its mines and manufac ries on its railroad or canal not exceeding fifty miles in length.

SEC. 6. No president, director. officer, agent or employee of any railroad r canal company shall be interested, directly or indirectly, in the furnishing f material or supplies to such company, or in the business of transportation s a common carrier of freight or passengers over the works owned, leased. ontrolled or worked by such company.

SEC. 7. No discrimination in charges or facilities for transportation shall ≥ made between transportation companies and individuals, or in favor of ther, by abatement, drawback or otherwise, and no railroad or canal cominy, or any lessee, manager or employee thereof. shall make any preferences furnishing cars or motive power.

SEC. 8. No railroad, railway or other transportation company shall grant ee passes, or passes at a discount, to any person except officers or employees the company.

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SEC. 9. No street passenger railway shall be constructed within the mits of any city, borough or township, without the consent of its local uthorities.

SEC. 10. No railroad. canal or other transportation company, in existice at the time of the adoption of this article, shall have the benefit of y future legislation by general or special laws, except on condition of comete acceptance of all the provisions of this article.

SEC. 11. The existing powers and duties of the Auditor General in regard › railroads, canals and other transportation companies, except as to their counts, are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Internal Affairs, who all have a general supervision over them, subject to such regulations and terations as shall be provided by law; and, in addition to the annual reports w required to be made, said Secretary may require special reports at ny time upon any subject relating to the business of said companies from any ficer or officers thereof.

SEC. 12. The General Assembly shall enforce by appropriate legislation e provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XVIII.

FUTURE AMENDMENTS.

SECTION 1. Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be roposed in the Senate or House of Representatives; and, if the same shall e agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each House, such proosed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals with he yeas and nays taken thereon, and the Secretary of the Commonwealth hall cause the same to be published three months before the next general lection, in at least two newspapers in every county in which such newspapers hall be published; and if, in the General Assembly next afterwards chosen. uch proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of he members elected to each House, the Secretary of the Commonwealth shall ause the same again to be published in the manner aforesaid: and such roposed amendment or amendments shall be submitted to the qualified electors f the State in such manner, and at such time at least three months after ing so agreed to by the two Houses, as the General Assembly shall prescribe;

and, if such amendment or amendments shall be approved by a majority of those voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a par of the Constitution; but no amendment or amendments shall be submitted oftener than once in five years. When two or more amendments shall be submitted they shall be voted upon separately.

[ARTICLE XIX.]

REGISTRATION OF LAND TITLES.

[SECTION 1.] Laws may be passed providing for a system of registering, transferring, insuring of and guaranteeing land titles by the State, or by the counties thereof, and for settling and determining adverse or other claims to and interest in lands the titles to which are so registered, transferred. insured, and guaranteed; and for the creation and collection of indemnity funds; and for carrying the system and powers hereby provided for into effect by such existing courts as may be designated by the Legislature, and by the establishment of such new courts as may be deemed necessary. In matters arising in and under the operation of such system, judicial powers, with right of appeal, may be conferred by the Legislature upon county recorders and upon other officers by it designated. Such laws may provide for continuing the registering, transferring, insuring, and guaranteeing, such titles after the first or original registration has been perfected by the court, and provision may be made for raising the necessary funds for expenses and salaries of officers, which shall be paid out of the treasury of the several counties,19

SCHEDULE FOR THE CONSTITUTION.

That no inconvenience may arise from the changes in the Constitution of the Commonwealth, and in order to carry the same into complete operation, it is hereby declared, that:

SECTION 1. This Constitution shall take effect on the first day of January. in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, for all purposes not otherwise provided for therein.

SEC. 2. All laws in force in this Commonwealth at the time of the ade tion of this Constitution, not inconsistent therewith, and all rights, actions. prosecutious and contracts, shall continue as if this Constitution had not beer adopted.

SEC. 3. At the general election in the years one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four and one thousand eight hundred seventy-five Senators sha" be elected in all districts where there shall be vacancies. Those elected in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four shall serve for two years, and those elected in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventyfive shall serve for one year. Senators now elected and those whose terms are unexpired shall represent the districts in which they reside until the end of the terms for which they were elected.

SEC. 4. At the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six, Senators shall be elected from even numbered districts to serve for two years, and from odd numbered districts to serve for four years. SEC. 5. The first election of Governor under this Constitution shall be at the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventyfive, when a Governor shall be elected for three years; and the term of the Governor elected in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight and of those thereafter elected shall be for four years, according to the provisions of this Constitution.

SEC. 6. At the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four a Lieutenant Governor shall be elected according to the provisions of this Constitution.

19 [Article XIX] is a new article; it was proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1913, re-adopted by the legislature of 1915 and ratified at the election of Nov. 1915. No article or section number was assigned to this amendment and it has been placed here for convenience,

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SEC. 7. The Secretary of Internal Affairs shall be elected at the first eral election after the adoption of this Constitution; and, when the said cer shall be duly elected and qualified, the office of Surveyor General shall abolished. The Surveyor General in office at the time of the adoption of * Constitution shall continue in office until the expiration of the term for ich he was elected.

SEC. 8. When the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be duly lified the office of Superintendent of Common Schools shall cease.

SEC. 9. Nothing contained in this Constitution shall be construed to render person now holding any State office for a first official term ineligible for lection at the end of such term.

SEC. 10. The judges of the Supreme Court in office when this Constitution I take effect shall continue until their commissions severally expire. Two ges in addition to the number now composing the said court shall be elected the first general election after the adoption of this Constitution. SEC. 11. All courts of record and all existing courts which are not specified this Constitution shall continue in existence until the first day of Decemin the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, without abridgt of their present jurisdiction, but no longer. The court of first criminal sdiction for the counties of Schuylkill, Lebanon and Dauphin is hereby ished, and all causes and proceedings pending therein in the county of uylkill shall be tried and disposed of in the courts of oyer and terminer quarter sessions of the peace of said county.

SEC. 12. The registers' courts now in existence shall be abolished on the day of January next succeeding the adoption of this Constitution. SEC. 13. The General Assembly shall, at the next session after the adopof this Constitution, designate the several judicial districts as required this Constitution. The judges in commission when such designation shall nade shall continue during their unexpired terms judges of the new diss in which they reside; but, when there shall be two judges residing in same district, the president judge shall elect to which district he shall assigned, and the additional law judge shall be assigned to the other rict.

SEC. 14. The General Assembly shall, at the next succeeding session r each decennial census and not oftener, designate the several judicial Ficts as required by this Constitution.

SEC. 15. Judges learned in the law of any court of record holding comsions in force at the adoption of this Constitution shall hold their retive offices until the expiration of the terms for which they were comsioned, and until their successors shall be duly qualified. The Governor 1 commission the president judge of the court of first criminal jurisdicfor the counties of Schuylkill, Lebanon and Dauphin as a judge of the t of common pleas of Schuylkill county, for the unexpired term of his

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SEC. 16. After the expiration of the term of any president judge of any t of common pleas, in commission at the adoption of this Constitution, the te of such court learned in the law and oldest in commission shall be president judge thereof; and when two or more judges are elected at the e time in any judicial district they shall decide by lot which shall be ident judge; but when a president judge of a court shall be re-elected shall continue to be president judge of that court. Associate judges not ned in the law, elected after the adoption of this Constitution, shall be missioned to hold their offices for the term of five years from the first of January next after their election.

SEC. 17. The General Assembly, at the first session after the adoption his Constitution, shall fix and determine the compensation of the judges he Supreme Court and of the judges of the several judicial districts of Commonwealth; and the provisions of the fifteenth section of the article legislation shall not be deemed inconsistent herewith. Nothing contained his Constitution shall be held to reduce the compensation now paid to any judge of this Commonwealth now in commission.

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