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right of eminent domain shall not be so construed as to allow taxation or l'orced subscription for the benefit of railroads or any other kind of corporations, other than municipal, or for the benefit of any individual or association.

24. That all navigable waters shall remain forever public highways, free to the citizens of the State and the United States, without tax, impost or toll; and that no tax, toll, impost or wharfage shall be demanded or received from the owner of any merchandise or commodity for the use of the shores or any wharf erected on the shores, or in or over the waters, of any navigable stream, unless the same be expressly authorized by law.

25. That the citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together for the common good, and to apply to those invested with the power of government for redress or grievances or other purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.

26. That every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense of himself and the State.

27. That no standing army shall be kept up, without the consent of the Legislature, and, in that case, no appropriation for its support shall be made for a longer term than one year; and the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

28. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor, in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

29. That no title of nobility or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor or emolument, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State; and that no office shall be created, the appointment to which shall be for a longer time than during good behavior.

30. That immigration shall be encouraged; emigration shall not be prohibited. and no citizen shall be exiled.

31. That temporary absence from the State shall not cause å forfeiture of residence once obtained.

32. That no form of slavery shall exist in this State, and there shall not be any involuntary servitude, otherwise than for the punishment of crime of which the party shall have been duly convicted.

33. The privilege of suffrage shall be protected by laws regulating elections and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influences from power, bribery, tumult or other improper conduct.

34. Foreigners who are, or may hereafter become, bona fide residents of this State, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment and inheritance of property as native born citizens.

35. That the sole object and only legitimate end of government is to protect the citizen in the enjoyment of life, liberty and property, and when the government assumes other functions it is usurpation and oppression.

36. That this enumeration of certain rights shall not impair or deny others retained by the people; and, to guard against any encroachments on the rights herein retained, we declare that everything in this Declaration of Rights is excepted out of the general powers of government, and shall forever remain inviolate.

ARTICLE II.

STATE AND COUNTY BOUNDARIES. 37. The boundaries of this State are established and declared to be as follows, that is to say: Beginning at the point where the thirty-first degree of north latitude crosses the Perdido river; thence east, to the western boundary line of the State of Georgia ; thence along sa id line to the southern boundary line of the State of Tennessee; thence west, along the southern boundary line of the State of Tennessee, crossing the Tennessee river, and on to the second intersection of said river by said line; thence up said river to the mouth of Big Bear creek; thence by a direct line to the northwest corner of Washington county, in this State, as originally formed; thence southwardly along the line of the State of Mississippi, to the Gulf of Mexico; thence eastwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido river; thence

up the said river to the beginning; provided that the limits and jurisdiction of this State shall extend to and include any other land and territory hereafter acquired by contract or agreement with other States, or otherwise, although such land and territory are not included within the boundaries hereinbefore designated.

38. The boundaries of the several counties of this State, as they now exist, are hereby ratified and confirmed.

39. The Legislature may by a vote of two-thirds of each House thereof arrange and designate boundaries for the several counties of this state, which boundaries shall not be altered, except by a like vote; but no new county shall be formed hereafter of less extent than six hundred square miles, and no existing county shall be reduced to less than six hundred square miles; and no new county shall be formed unless it shall contain a sufficient number of inhabitants to entitle it to one Representative under the ratio of representation existing at the time of its formation, and leave the county or counties from which it is taken with the required number of inhabitants to entitle such county or counties, each, to separate representation; provided, that out of the counties oť Henry, Dale and Geneva, a new county of less than six hundred sjuare miles may be formed under the provisions of this article, so as to leare said counties of Henry. Dale and Geneva with not less than five hundred square miles each.

10. No county line shall be altered or changed, or, in the event of the creation of new counties, shall be established, so as to run within seven miles of the county court house of any old county.

41. No court house or county site shall be removed except by a majority vote of the qualified electors of said county, voting at an election held for such purpose, and when an election has once been held no other election shall be held for such purpose, until the expiration of four years, provided, that the county site of Shelby county shall remain at Columbiana, unless removed by a rote of the people as provided for in an act entitled, “An Act to provide for the permanent location of the county site of Shelby county, Alabama, by a vote of the qualified electors of said county," approved the 9th day of February, 1899, and the act amendatory thereof, approved the 20th day of February, 1899, or by an election held under the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE III.

DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS OF GOVERNMENT.

42. The powers of the government of the State of Alabama shall be divided into three distinct departments, each of which shall be confided to a separate body of magistracy, to-wit: Those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.

43. In the government of this State, except in the instances in this constitution hereinafter expressly directed or permitted, the legislative department shall never exercise the executive and judicial powers, or either of them; the executive shall never exercise the legislative and judicial powers, or either of them; the judicial shall never exercise the legislative and executive powers, or either of them; to the end that it may be a government of laws and not of men.

ARTICLE IV.

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT.

44. The legislative power of this state shall be vested in a Legislature, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.

45. The style of the laws of this State shall be: "Be it enacted by the Legislature of Alabama," which need not be repeated, but the act shall be divided into sections for convenience, according to substance; and the sections designated merely by figures. Each law shall contain but one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title, except general appropriation bills, general revenue bills, and bills adopting it code, digest, or revision of statutes; and Do law shall be revised, amended, or the provisions thereof extended or con

ferred, by reference to its title only; but so much thereof as is revised, amended, extended, or conferred, shall be re-enacted and published at length.' - 46. Senators and Representatives shall be elected by the qualified electors on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in Norember, unless the Legislature shall change the time of holding elections, and in erery fourth year thereafter. The terms of office of the Senators and Representatives shall commence on the day after the general election at which they are elected, and expire on the day after the general election held in the fourth year after their election, except as otherwise provided in this constitution. · At the general election in the year nineteen hundred and two' all the Representatives, together with the Senators for the even numbered districts and for the Thirty-fifth district, shall be elected. The terms of those Senators who represent the odd numbered districts under the law in force prior to the ratification of this Constitution are hereby extended until the day after the general election in the year nineteen hundred and six; and until the expiration of his term as hereinbefore extended, each such Senator shall represent the district established by this Constitution bearing the number' corresponding with that for which he was elected. In the year nineteen hundred and six, and in every fourth year thereafter, all the Senators and Representatives shall be elected. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in either House the Governor shall issue a writ of election to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the term.

47. Senators shall be at least twenty-five years of age, and Representatives twenty-one years of age at the time of their election. They shall have been citizens and residents of this State for three years, and residents of their respective counties or districts for one year next before their election, if such county or district shall have been so long established; but if not, then of the county or district from which the same shall have been taken; and they shall reside in their respective counties or districts during their terms of office.

48. The Legislature shall meet quadrennially at the Capitol, in the Senate chamber, and in the Hall of the House of Representatives, on the second Tuesday in January next succeeding their election, or on such other day as may be prescribed by law; and shall not remain in session longer than sixty days at the first session held under this Constitution, nor longer than fifty drys at any . If at any time it should from any cause become impos

or remain at the Capitol or for the Senate to meet or remain in the to meet or remain in the Hall of the House of Representatives, the Governor may convene the Legislature, or remove it, after it has convened, to some other place, or may designate some other place for the sitting of the respective Houses, or either of theni, as necessity may require,

49. The pay of the members of the Legislature shall be four dollars per day, and ten cents per mile in' going to and returning from the seat of government, to be computed by the nearest usual route traveled.

50. The Legislature shall consist of not more than thirty-five Senators, and not more than one hundred and five members of the House of Representatives, to be apportioned among the several districts and counties as prescribed in this Constitution; providel that in addition to the above number of Representatives each new county Hereafter created shall be entitled to one Representative.

51. The Senate, at the beginning of each regular session, and at such other times as may be necessary. shall elect one of its members president pro tem. thereof, to preside over its deliberations in the absence of the LieutenantGovernor; and the House of Representatives, at the beginning of each regular session, and at such other times as may be necessary, shall elect one of its members as Speaker; aud the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall hold their offices, respectively, until their suiccessors are elected and qualified. In case of the temporary disability of either of said presiding officers, the House to which he belongs may elect one of its members to preside over that House, and to perform all the duties of suehr officer during the continuance of his disability; and such temporary officer, While performing duty is such, shall receive the same compensation to which

sible or dangerous for the Legislaturseno te chamber, or for the Representatives

the permanent officer is entitled by law, and no other. Each House shall choose its own officers, and shall judge of the election, returns and qualifications of its members.

32. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day md compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

53. Each House shall have power to determine the rules of its proceedings, and to punish its members and other persons, for contempt or disorderly bebarior in its presence; to enforce obedience to its processes; to protect its members against violence or offers of bribery or corrupt solicitation; and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of the House, to expel a member, but not a second time for the same offense; and the two Houses shall have all the powers necessary for the Legislature of a free State.

it. A member of the Legislature expelled for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible to either House; and punishment for coutempt or disorderly behavior shall not bar an indictinent for the same offense.

535. Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjournment, excepting such parts as, in its judgment, may require secrecy; and the veas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the request of one-tenth of the members present, be entered on the Journal. Any member of either house shall have liberty to dissent from or protest against, any act or resolution which be may thuk injurious to the public, or to an individual, and have the reason for his dissent entered on the Journal.

36. Members of the Legislature shall in all cases, except treasoni, felony. riolation of their oath of office, and breach of the peace. be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place.

17. The doors of each House shall be opened except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the House, may require secrecy; but no person shall be admitted to the floor of either House while the same is in session, except members of the Legislature, officers and employees of the two Houses, the Governor and his secretaries, representatives of the press and other persons to whom either House, by unanimous vote, may extend the privileges of its floor.

js. Neither House shall, without consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting, except as otherwise provided in this ('onstitution.

19. No Senator or Representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any office of profit under the State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased during such terni, except such offices as may be filled by election by the people.

60. No person convicted of embezzlement of the public money, bribery, perjury, or other infamous crime, shall be eligible to the Legislature or capable of holding any office of trust or profit in this State.

61. No law shall be passed except by bill, and no bill shall be so altered or amended on its passage through either House as to change the original purpose.

02. So bill shall become a law until it shall hve been referred to a standing committee of each House, acted upon by such committee in session, and returned therefrom, which facts shall affirm:tively appear won the Journal of each House.

13. Every bill shall be read on three different days in each House, and no bill shall become a law unless on its final passage it be read at length, and the rote be taken by veas and nays, the names of the members voting for and against the same be entered upon the Journal, and a majority of each House be recorded thereon as voting in its favor, except as otherwise provided in this ('onstitution. 61. Yo amendment to bills shall be adopted 'except by a majority of the

House wherein the same is offered, nor unless the amendment, with the names of those voting for and against the same, shall be entered at length on the Journal of the House in which the same is adopted; and no amendment to bills by one House shall be concurred in by the other, unless a vote be taken by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for and against the same be recorded at length on the Journal; and no report of a committee of conference shall be adopted in either House except upon a vote taken by yeas und nays and entered on the Journal as herein provided for the adoption of amendments.

65. The Legislature shall have no power to authorize lotteries or gift enterprises for any purpose, and shall pass laws to prohibit the sale in this State of lottery or gift enterprise tickets, or tickets in any scheme in the nature of a lottery; and all acts or parts of acts heretofore passed by the Legislature of this State, authorizing a lottery or lotteries, and all acts amenJatory thereof, or supplemental thereto, are hereby voided.

66. The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of the House over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the Legislature, after the same shall have been publicly read at length immediately before signing, and the fact of reading and signing shall be entered upon the Journal; but the reading at length may be dispensed with by a two-thirds vote of a quorum present, which fact shall also be entered on the Journal.

67. The Legislature shall prescribe by law the number, duties and compensation of the officers and employees of each House, and no pay shall be made from the State Treasury or be in any way authorized to any person except to an acting officer or employee elected or appointed in pursuance of law.

08. The Legislature shall have no power to grant, or to authorize or require any county or municipal authority to grant, nor shall any county or municipal authority have power to grant, any extra compensation, fee or allowance to any public officer, servant or employee, agent or contractor, after service shall have been rendered or contract made; nor to increase or decrease the tees and compensation of such officers, during their terms of office; nor shall my officer of the State bind the State to the payment of any sum of money, but by authority of law; provided this section shall not apply to allowances made by commissioners' court. or boards of revenue to county officers for ex-officio services, nor prevent the Legislature from increasing or diminishing at any time the allowance to sheriffs or other officers for feeding, transferring or guarding prisoners.

69. All stationery, printing, paper and fuel used in the legislative and other departments of government, shall be furnished, and the printing, binding and listribution of laws. Journals, department reports and all other printing, binding and repairing, and furnishing the halls and rooms used for the meeting of the Legislature and its committees, shall be performed, under contract, to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below a maximum price, and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by law; no member or officer of any department of the government shall be in any way interested in such contracts, and all such contracts shall be subject to the approval of the Governor, Auditor, and Treasurer.

70. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives. The Governor, Auditor and Attorney General shall, before each regular session of the Legislature, prepare a general revenue bill, to be submitted to the Legislature for its information, and the Secretary of State shall have printed for the use of the Legislature a sufficient number of copies of the bill so prepared, which the Governor shall transmit to the House of Representatives as soon as organized to be used or dealt with as that House may elect. The Senate may propose amendments to revenue bills. No revenue bill shall be passed during the last five days of the session.

71. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial departments of the State, for interest on the public debt, and for the public schools. The salary of no officer or employee shall be increased in such bill,

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