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SEC. 18. The courts of common pleas in the counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny shall be composed of the present judges of the district court and court of common pleas of said counties until their offices shall severally end, and of such other judges as may from time to time be selected. For the purpose of first organization in Philadelphia the judges of the court nun.ber one shall be Judges Allison, Pierce and Paxson; of the court number two, Judges Hare, Mitchell and one other judge to be elected; of the court number three. Judges Ludlow, Finletter and Lynd; and of the court number four. Judges Thayer, Briggs and one other judge to be elected. The judge first named shall be the president judge of said courts respectively, and there after the president judge shall be the judge oldest in commission; but any president judge re-elected in the same court or district, shall continue to be president judge thereof. The additional judges for courts numbers two and four shall be voted for and elected at the first general election after the adop tion of this Constitution, in the same manner as the two additional judges of the Supreme Court, and they shall decide by lot to which court they shall belong. Their term of office shall commence on the first Monday of January in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five.
SEC. 19. In the county of Allegheny, for the purpose of first organization under this Constitution, the judges of the court of common pleas, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be the judges of the court number one, and the judges of the district court, at the same date, shall be the judges of the common pleas number two. The president judges of the common pleas and district court shall be president judge of said courts numbers one and two respectively, until their offices shall end; and thereafter the judge oldest in commission shall be president judge; but any president judge re-elected in the same court or district, shall continue to be president judge thereof.
SEC. 20. The organization of the courts of common pleas under this Com stitution for the counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny shall take effect on the first Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five. and existing courts in said counties shall continue with their present powers and jurisdiction until that date, but no new suits shall be instituted in the courts of nisi prius after the adoption of this Constitution.
SEC. 21. The causes and proceedings pending in the court of nisi prius. court of common pleas, and district court in Philadelphia shall be tried aud disposed of in the court of common pleas. The records and dockets of sci courts shall be transferred to' the prothonotary's office of said county.
SEC. 22. The causes and proceedings pending in the court of common ples in the county of Allegheny shall be tried and disposed of in the court num ber one; and the causes and proceedings pending in the district court stall be tried and disposed of in the court number two.
SEC. 23. The prothonotary of the court of common pleas of Philadelphi shall be first appointed by the judges of said court on the first Mond: 3 of December in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, and tpresent prothonotary of the district court in said county shall be the prothonotary of the said court of common pleas until said date when his commission shall expire, and the present clerk of the court of oyer and terminer ale quarter sessions of the peace in Philadelphia shal! be the clerk of such court until the expiration of his present commission on the first Monday of I cember, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five.
SEC. 24. In cities containing over fifty thousand inhabitants, except Pe delphia, all aldermen in office at the time of the adoption of this Constit shall continue in office until the expiration of their commissions, and at 1L election for city and ward officers in the year one thousand eight hundre. and seventy-five one alderman shall be elected in each ward as provide】 i this Constitution.
SEC. 25. In Philadelphia magistrates in lieu of aldermen shall be cbas required in this Constitution, at the election in said city for city and w officers in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five; their ** ** of office shall commence on the first Monday of April succeeding their elec
e terms of office of aldermen in said city holding or entitled to commisons at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall not be affected ereby.
SEC. 26. All persons in office in this Commonwealth at the time of the option of this Constitution, and at the first election under it, shall hold ir respective offices until the term for which they have been elected or pointed shall expire, and until their successors shall be duly qualified, less otherwise provided in this Constitution.
SEC. 27. The seventh article of this Constitution prescribing an oath office shall take effect on and after the first day of January, one thousand ht hundred and seventy-five.
SEC. 28. The terms of office of county commissioners and county auditors, sen prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, which ll not have expired before the first Monday of January, in the year one usand eight hundred and seventy-six, shall expire on that day.
SEC. 29. All State, county, city, ward, borough and township officers in e at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, whose compensation not provided for by salaries alone, shall continue to receive the compensai allowed them by law until the expiration of their respective terms of
SEC. 30. All State and judicial officers heretofore elected, sworn, or rmed, or in office when this Constitution shall take effect, shall severally, hin one month after such adoption, take and subscribe an oath, or affirma1. to support this Constitution.
SEC. 31. The General Assembly at its first session, or as soon as may be ›r the adoption of this Constitution, shall pass such laws as may be essary to carry the same into full force and effect.
SFC. 32. The ordinance passed by this Convention, entitled "An ordinance * submitting the amended Constitution of Pennsylvania to a vote of the tors thereof," shall be held to be valid for all the purposes thereof.
D. L. IMBRIE,
SEC. 33. The words "county commissioners," whenever used in this Conution and in any ordinance accompanying the same, shall be held to include commissioners for the city of Philadelphia.
Adopted at Philadelphia, on the third day of November, in the year of
JNO. H. WALKER,
SCHEDULE FOR THE AMENDMENTS.20
That no inconvenience may arise from the changes in the Constitution the Commonwealth, and in order to carry the same into complete opera1. it is hereby declared that-
In the case of officers elected by the people, all terms of office fixed by of Assembly at an odd number of years shall each be lengthened one r, but the Legislature may change the length of the term. provided the ns for which such officers are elected shall always be for an even number
The above extension of official terms shall not affect officers elected at general election of one thousand nine hundred and eight: nor any city, d. borough, township, or election division officers, whose terms of office. er existing law, end in the year one thousand nine hundred and ten. In the year one thousand nine hundred and ten the municipal election I be held on the third Tuesday of February as heretofore; but all officers sen at that election to an office the regular term of which is two years,
20 Schedule designed to accompany the amendments of 1909; proposed and adopted the legislature of 1907, re-adopted by the legislature of 1909 and ratified on Nov. 909.
and also all election officers and assessors chosen at that election, shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven. All officers chosen at that election to offices the term of which is now four years, or is made four years by the operation of these amendments or this schedule, shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine hundred and thirteen. All justices of the peace, magistrates, and aldermen, chosen at that election, shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifteen. After the year nineteen hundred and ten, and until the Legislature shall otherwise provide, all terms of city, ward, borough, township, and election division officers shall begin on the first Monday of December in an odd-numbered year.
All city, ward, borough, and township officers holding office at the date of the approval of these amendments, whose terms of office may end in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven, shall continue to hold their offices until the first Monday of December of that year.
All judges of the courts for the several judicial districts, and also all county officers, holding office at the date of the approval of these amendments. whose terms of office may end in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven, shall continue to hold their offices until the first Monday of January, one thousand nine hundred and twelve.
CONSTITUTION OF RHODE ISLAND-1842.*
We, the people of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, teful to Almighty God for the civil and religious liberty which He hath long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon our eavors to secure and to transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding gentions, do ordain and establish this constitution of government.
DECLARATION OF CERTAIN CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AND PRINCIPLES.
In order effectually to secure the religious and political freedom estabed by our venerated ancestors, and to preserve the same for our posterity, do declare that the essential and unquestionable rights and principles einafter mentioned shall be established, maintained and preserved, and be of paramount obligation in all legislative, judicial and executive prolings.
SECTION 1. In the words of the Father of his County, we declare, that → basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and r their constitutions of government; but that the constitution which at time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole le, is sacredly obligatory upon all."
SEC. 2. All free governments are instituted for the protection, safety and piness of the people. All laws, therefore, should be made for the good of whole; and the burdens of the state ought to be fairly distributed among citizens.
SEC. 3. Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free; and all atpts to influence it by temporal punishments or burdens, or by civil incatations, tend to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness; and whereas a cipal object of our venerable ancestors, in their migration to this country their settlement of this state, was, as they expressed it, to hold forth a y experiment, that a flourishing civil state may stand and be best mained with full liberty in religious concernments; we, therefore, declare that man shall be compelled to frequent or to support any religious worship, e, or ministry whatever, except in fulfillment of his own voluntary con t; nor enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods;
*Prior to 1842, the organic law of Rhode Island was the Charter of 1663. The isions of this instrument relative to suffrage and apportionment had grown pararly anachronistic. The movement for constitutional reform was led by Thomas Dorr, and expressed itself in the so-called Dorr Rebellion. Through the efforts he suffragists, as Dorr's partisans were called, a People's Convention was cond and assembled at Providence on October 4, 1841, and adjourned on November 1841, after having drafted a constitution. The proposed constitution was subed to a vote of the people on December 27, 28 and 29. All told, 4,960 freemen and 4 non-freemen voted on the constitution. On January 12, 1842, the People's Conion reconvened to canvass the returns. The convention estimated the number of t males of the state qualified to vote under the People's Constitution at 23,142; count showed that the constitution had been ratified by a decisive popular majority. final act of the convention was to declare the constitution in force. In the ntime, the general assembly had called a convention which met on November 1, , remained in session two weeks, and adjourned until February, 1842. When this ention reassembled, the general assembly had refused to recognize the People's stitution, but it had determined that those whom the Freemen's Constitution might ts terms enfranchise should be permitted to vote on the adoption of a constitution. ordingly, the convention submitted a constitution, known as the Freemen's Constion on February 19; the vote was taken on March 21, 22 and 23, and the prod constitution was defeated by a majority of 676. In March, 1842, the supreme t unofficially announced that in its judgment the People's Constitution was illegal nonenforcible, and that no person had had any legal authority to vote on the Position. During the same month, the general assembly enacted the so-called gerine Law" which declared all elections conducted otherwise than under existing utes illegal and void. In November, 1842, after the force of the Dorr Rebellion spent itself, the Freemen's Constitution was re-submitted to the people and adopted, the government provided for by the new constitution was installed on May 3, 1843...
nor disqualified from holding any office; nor otherwise suffer on account of his religious belief; and that every man shall be free to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and to profess and by argu ment to maintain his opinion in matters of religion; and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect his civil capacity.
Slavery will not be permitted in this state.
SEC. 5. Every person within this state ought to find a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or character. He ought to obtain right and justice freely and without purchase, completely and without denial; promptly and without delay; conformably to the laws.
SEC. 6. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, papers and possessions, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated: and no warrant shall issue, but on complaint in writing, upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and describing as nearly as may be, the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
SEC. 7. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime, unless on presentment or indictment by a grand pury, except in cases of impeachment, or of such offences as are cognizable by a justice of the peace; or in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger. No person shall, after an acquittal, be tried for the same offence.
SEC. 8. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed. nor cruel punishments inflicted; and all punishments ought to be proportionel to the offence.
SEC. 9. All persons imprisoned ought to be bailed by sufficient surety, unless for offences punishable by death or by imprisonment for life, when the proof of guilt is evident or the presumption great. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety shall require it; nor ever without the authority of the general assembly.
SEC. 10. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury; to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining them in his favor, t have the assistance of counsel in his defence, and shall be at liberty to speak for himself; nor shall he be deprived of life, liberty, or property, unless by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land.
SEC. 11. The person of a debtor, when there is not strong presumption of fraud, ought not to be continued in prison, after he shall have delivered up his property for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
SEC. 12. No ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of col tracts, shall be passed.
SEC. 13. No man in a court of common law shall be compelled to give evidence criminating himself.
SEC. 14. Every man being presumed innocent, until he is pronounced guilty by the law, no act of severity which is not necessary to secure an accused person shall be permitted.
SEC. 15. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.
SEC. 16. compensation.
Private property shall not be taken for public uses, without just
SEC. 17. The people shall continue to enjoy and freely exercise all the rights of fishery, and the privileges of the shore, to which they have been heretofore entitled under the charter and usages of this state. But no new right is intended to be granted, nor any existing right impaired, by this deca ration.
SEC. 18. The military shall be held in strict subordination to the vil authority. And the law martial shall be used and exercised in such cas only as occasion shall necessarily require.
SEC. 19. No soldier shall be quartered in any house, in time of peace,