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ithout the consent of the owner; nor, in time of war, but in a manner to prescribed by law.

SEC. 20. The liberty of the press being essential to the security of freem in a state, any person may publish his sentiments on any subject, being sponsible for the abuse of that liberty; and in all trials for libel, both civil d criminal, the truth, unless published from malicious motives, shall be suthnt defence to the person charged.

SEC. 21. The citizens have a right in a peaceable manner to assembly for eir common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of govument, for redress of grievances, or for other purposes, by petition, address, remonstrance. SEC. 22. fringed.

The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be

SEC. 23. The enumeration of the foregoing rights shall not be construed impair or deny others retained by the people.

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ARTICLE II.

OF THE QUALIFICATIONS OF ELECTORS.1

SECTION 1. Every male citizen of the United States, of the age of twentyyears, who has had his residence and home in this state for one year, and the town or city in which he may claim a right to vote, six months next ceding the time of voting, and who is really and truly possessed in his n right of real estate in such town or city of the value of one hundred and rty-four dollars over and above all incumbrances, or which shall rent for en dollars per annum over and above any rent reserved or the interest any incumbrances thereon, being an estate in fee-simple, fee-tail, for the of any person, or an estate in reversion or remainder, which qualifies no er person to vote, the conveyance of which estate, if by deed, shall have In recorded at least ninety days, shall thereafter have a right to vote in election of all civil officers and on all questions in all legal town or ward etings so long as he continues so qualified. And if any person hereinbefore cribed shall own any such estate within this state out of the town or city which he resides, he shall have a right to vote in the election of all general cers and members of the general assembly in the town or city in which shall have had his residence and home for the term of six months next ceding the election, upon producing a certificate from the clerk of the town city in which his estate lies, bearing date within ten days of the time of voting, setting forth that such person has a sufficient estate therein to lify him as a voter; and that the deed, if any, has been recorded ninety

S.

SEC. 2. Every male native citizen of the United States, of the age of nty-one years, who has had his residence and home in this state two rs, and in the town or city in which he may offer to vote, six months t preceding the time of voting, whose name is registered pursuant to the calling the convention to "frame this constitution, or shall be registered the office of the clerk of such town or city at least seven days before the e he shall offer to vote, and before the last day of December in the present r: and who has paid or shall pay a tax or taxes assessed upon his estate hin this state, and within a year of the time of voting, to the amount of dollar, or who shall voluntarily pay, at least seven days before the time shall offer to vote, and before said last day of December, to the clerk or surer of the town or city where he resides, the sum of one dollar, or such D as with his other taxes shall amount to one dollar, for the support of lic schools therein, and shall make proof of the same, by the certificate of clerk, treasurer, or collector of any town or city where such payment is le: or who, being so registered, has been enrolled in any military comy in this state, and done military service or duty therein, within the presyear, pursuant to law, and shall (until other proof is required by law)

1 See Article IV of the Amendments, adopted in 1864, Article VI of the Amendts, adopted in 1886, and Article VII of the Amendments adopted in 1888.

prove by the certificate of the officer legally commanding the regiment, or chartered, or legally authorized volunteer company in which he may have served or done duty, that he has been equipped and done duty according to law, or by the certificate of the commissioners upon military claims, that he has performed military service, shall have a right to vote in the election of all civil officers, and on all questions in all legally organized town or ward meetings, until the end of the first year after the adoption of this constitution, or until the end of the year eighteen hundred and forty-three.

From and after that time, every such citizen who has had the residence herein required, and whose name shall be registered in the town where be resides, on or before the last day of December, in the year next preceding the time of his voting, and who shall show by legal proof, that he has for and within the year next preceding the time he shall offer to vote, paid a tax or taxes assessed against him in any town or city in this state, to the amount of one dollar, or that he has been enrolled in a military company in this state. been equipped and done duty therein according to law, and at least for one day during such year, shall have a right to vote in the election of all civil officers, and on all questions, in all legally organized town or ward meetings: Provided that no person shall at any time be allowed to vote in the election of the city council of the city of Providence, or upon any proposition to im pose a tax, or for the expenditure of moneys in any town or city, unless he shal within the year next preceding have paid a tax assessed upon his property therein, valued at least at one hundred and thirty-four dollars."

SEC. 3. The assessors of each town or city shall annually assess upon every person whose name shall be registered a tax of one dollar, or such sum as with his other taxes shall amount to one dollar, which registry tax shall be paid into the treasury of such town or city, and be applied to the support of public schools therein; but no compulsory process shall issue for the collection of any registry tax: Provided.. that the registry tax every person who has performed military duty according to the pr visions of the preceding section shall be remitted for the year shall perform such duty; and the registry tax assessed upon any marile for any year while he is at sea, shall, upon his application, be remitted; »> no person shall be allowed to vote whose registry tax for either of the years next preceding the time of voting is not paid or remitted as he provided.2

SEC. 4. No person in the military, naval, marine, or any other serviced ¦ the United States shall be considered as having the required residence by reason of being employed in any garrison, barrack, or military or naval sta tion in this state: and no pauper, lunatic, person non compos mentis, pers under guardianship, or member of the Narragansett tribe of Indians, shall t permitted to be registered or to vote. Nor shall any person convicted of bribery, or of any crime deemed infamous at common law, be permitted t exercise that privilege, until he be expressly restored thereto by act of tel general assembly.

SEC. 5. Persons residing on lands ceded by this state to the United State shall not be entitled to exercise the privilege of electors.

SEC. 6. The general assembly shall have full power to provide for registry of voters, to prescribe the manner of conducting the elections, t form of certificates, the nature of the evidence to be required in case of a de pute as to the right of any person to vote, and generally to enact all le necessary to carry this article into effect and to prevent abuse, corruption * fraud in voting.

ARTICLE III.

OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS.

The powers of the government shall be distributed into three depe ments: the legislative, excutive, and judicial.

Sections 2 and 3 were annulled and superseded by sections 1 and 2 of Article 1 of the Amendments, adopted in 1888.

ARTICLE IV.

OF THE LEGISLATIVE POWER,

SECTION 1. This constitution shall be the supreme law of the state, and y law inconsistent therewith shall be void. The general assembly shall pass laws necessary to carry this constitution into effect.

SEC. 2. The legislative power, under this constitution, shall be vested two houses. the one to be called the senate, the other the house of reprentatives; and both together the general assembly. The concurrence of the o houses shall be necessary to the enactment of laws. The style of their s shall be, "It is enacted by the general assembly as follows:"

SEC. 3. There shall be two sessions of the general assembly holden anally: one at Newport, on the first Tuesday of May, for the purposes of ction and other business; the other on the last Monday of October, which last ssion shall be holden at South Kingstown once in two years, and the interdiate years alternately at Bristol and East Greenwich; and an adjournnt from the October session shall be holden annually at Providence.3

SEC. 4. No member of the general assembly shall take any fee, or be of sel in any case pending before either house of the general assembly, under alty of forfeiting his seat, upon proof thereof to the satisfaction of the use of which he is a member.

SEC. 5. The person of every member of the general assembly shall be mpt from arrest, and his estate from attachment in any civil action, durthe session of the general assembly, and two days before the commencent and two days after the termination thereof, and all process served conry bereto shall be yoid. For any speech in debate in either house, no mber shall be questioned in any other place.

SEC. 6. Each house shall be the judge of the elections and qualifications its members; and a majority shall constitute a quorum to do business; a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the atdance of absent members in such manner, and under such penalties, as may prescribed by such house or by law. The organization of the two houses y be regulated by law, subject to the limitations contained in this conution.

SEC. 7. Each house may determine its rules of proceeding, punish conpts, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurce of two-thirds, expel a member; but not a second time for the same cause. SEC. S. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings. The yeas nays of the members of either house shall, at the desire of one-fifth of se present. be entered on the journal.

SEC. 9. Neither house shall, during a session, without the consent of the er, adjourn for more than two days, nor to any other place than that in Jch they may be sitting.

SEC. 10. The general assembly shall continue to exercise the powers they e heretofore exercised, unless prohibited in this constitution.

SEC. 11. The senators and representatives shall receive the sum of one ar for every day of attendance, and eight cents per mile for traveling exses in going to and returning from the general assembly. The general mbly shall regulate the compensation of the governor, and all other officers. ject to the limitations contained in this constitution.4

SEC. 12. All lotteries shall hereafter be prohibited in this state, except se already authorized by the general assembly,

SEC. 13. The general assembly shall have no power. hereafter, without express consent of the people, to incur state debts to an amount exceeding

thousand dollars, except in time of war, or in case of insurrection or sion: nor shall they in any case, without such consent, pledge the faith the state for the payment of the obligations of others. This section shall

Modified by Article III of the Amendments, adopted in 1854, and by Section 1. cle XI of the Amendments adopted in 1900.

4

Section 11 was annulled by Article XI (Section 1) of the amendments, adopted

not be construed to refer to any money that may be deposited with this state by the government of the United States.

SEC. 14. The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the general assembly shall be required to every bill appropriating the public money or property for local or private purposes.

SEC. 15. The general assembly shall, from time to time, provide for making new valuations of property, for the assessment of taxes, in such manner as they may deem best. A new estimate of such property shall be taken before the first direct state tax, after the adoption of this constitution, shall be assessed.

SEC. 16. The general assembly may provide by law for the continuance ja office of any officers of annual election or appointment, until other persons are qualified to take their places.

SEC. 17. Hereafter, when any bill shall be presented to either house of the general assembly, to create a corporation for any other than for religious. literary, or charitable purposes, or for a military or fire company, it shall be continued until another election of members of the general assembly shall have taken place, and such public notice of the pendency thereof shall be given as may be required by law,5

SEC. 18. It shall be the duty of the two houses, upon the request of either, to join in grand committee for the purpose of electing senators in congress, at such times and in such manner as may be prescribed by law for said elections.

ARTICLE V.

OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

SECTION 1. The house of representatives shall never exceed seventy-two members, and shall be constituted on the basis of population, always allowing one representative for a fraction exceeding half the ratio; but each town city shall always be entitled to at least one member; and no town or city shal have more than one-sixth of the whole number of members to which the hou is hereby limited. The present ratio shall be one representative to every fifteen hundred and thirty inhabitants, and the general assembly may, after any new census taken by the authority of the United States or of this stre reappointed the representation by altering, the ratio; but no town or city shall be divided into districts for the choice of representatives,6

SEC. 2. The house of representatives shall have authority to elect its speaker, clerks and other officers, The senior member from the town of New port, if any be present, shall preside in the organization of the house.

ARTICLE VI.

OF THE SENATE.

SECTION 1. The senate shall consist of the lieutenant-governor and of or* senator from each town or city in the state.

SEC. 2. The governor, and in his absence the lieutenant-governor, sha preside in the senate and grand committee. The presiding officer of th senate and grand committee shall have a right to vote in case of equal divisio but not otherwise.7

SEC. 3. If. by reason of death, resignation, absence, or other cause, there be no governor or lieutenant-governor present, to preside in the senate. the senate shall elect one of their own members to preside during such absence or vacancy; and until such election is made by the senate, the secretary of state shall preside.7

SEC. 4. The secretary of state shall, by virtue of his office, be secretary «

* Section 17 was annulled and superseded by Article IX of the Amendments, adopt in 1892. Section 1 was annulled and superseded by Article XIII of the Amendments, adep ed in 1909.

7 Sections 2 and 3 were annulled and superseded by Article XIV of the Amer ments, adopted in 1909.

senate, unless otherwise provided by law, and the senate may elect such er officers as they may deem necessary.S

ARTICLE VII.

OF THE EXECUTIVE POWER.

SECTION 1. The chief executive power of this state shall be vested in a ernor, who, together with a lieutenant-governor, shall be annually elected the people.

SEC. 2. The governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. SEC. 3. He shall be captain-general and commander-in-chief of the miliy and naval forces of this state, except when they shall be called into the vice of the United States.

SEC. 4. He shall have power to grant reprieves after conviction, in all es except those of impeachment until the end of the next session of the genI assembly.9

SEC. 5. He may fill vacancies in office not otherwise provided for by this. stitution or by law, until the same shall be filled by the general assembly, or the people.

SEC. 6. In case of disagreement between the two houses of the general mbly, respecting the time or place of adjournment, certified to him by either, may adjourn them to such time and place as he shall think proper: Provided, t the time of adjournment shall not be extended beyond the day of the next ed session.

SEC. 7. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly my town-or-city in this state, at any time not provided for by law; and in of danger from the prevalence of epidemic or contagious disease, in the e in which the general assembly are by law to meet, or to which they may e been adjourned, or for other urgent reasons, he may by proclamation consaid assembly at any other place within this state.

SEC. S. All commissions shall be in the name and by authority of the State Rhode Island and Providence Plantations; shall be sealed with the state signed by the governor and attested by the secretary.

SEC. 9. In case of vacancy in the office of governor, or of his inability to e, impeachment, or absence from the state, the lieutenant-governor shall the office of governor, and exercise the powers and authority appertaining 'eto, until a governor is qualified to act or until the office is filled at the tannual election.

SEC. 10. If the offices of governor and lieutenant-governor be both vacant. reason of death, resignation, impeachment, absence, or otherwise, the person tled to preside over the senate for the time being shall in like manner the office of governor during such absence or vacancy.

SEC. 11. The compensation of the governor and lieutenant-governor shall established by law, and shall not be diminished during the term for which are elected.

SEC. 12. The duties and powers of the secretary, attorney-general, and eral treasurer, shall be the same under this constitution as are now estabed, or as from time to time may be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE VII.

OF ELECTIONS.

SECTION 1. The governor, lieutenant-governor, senators, representatives, etary of state. attorney-general and general treasurer. shall be ted at the town, city, or ward meetings, to be holden on the first Wednes of April, annually; and shall severally hold their offices for one year, from first Tuesday of May next succeeding, and until others are legally chosen. duly qualified to fill their places. If elected or qualified after the said first

See Article XIV of the Amendments.

'See Article II of the Amendments, adopted in 1854.

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