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Prince William, Fairfax and Alexandria, and the city of
stitute the 'sixteenth circuit.
rederick, Clarke, Warren and Shenandoah shall constitute

Augusta, Highland and Rockbridge shall constitute the

Bath, Alleghany, Craig and Botetourt, and the city of constitute, the nineteenth circuit. Roanoke, Montgomery, Floyd, and the city of Roanoke shall ieth circuit.

Pulaski, Carroll, Wythe and Grayson shall constitute the i Bland, Tazewell and Giles shall constitute the twenty-second of Washington, Smyth and Scott shall constitute the twenty

of Lee and Wise shall constitute the twenty-fourth circuit.
of Rockinghạm and Page shall constitute the twenty-fifth cir-

of Rappa hannock, Fauquier and Loudoun shall constitute the cial circuit. of Buchanan, Russell and Dickinson shall constitute the twenty

s of Isle of Wight and Princess Anne and the city of Ports-
stitute the twenty-eighth circuit.
es of Amherst, Nelson and Fluvanna shall constitute the twenty-
es of Bedford and Franklin shall constitute the thirtieth circuit.
ies of Accomac and Northampton shall constitute the thirty-first

After the first day of January, nineteen hundred and six, as the t requires, the General Assembly may rearrange the said circuits

or diminish the number thereof. But no new circuit shall be ining, by the last United States census or other census provided than forty thousand inhabitants, nor when the effect of creating ) reduce the number of inhabitants in any existing circuit below nd according to such census.2

For each circuit a judge shall be chosen by the joint vote of the of the General Assembly. He shall, when chosen, possess the same is as judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals, and during his conoffice shall reside in the circuit of which he is judge. At the first der this Constituțion, the General Assembly shall elect, as nearly as ., one-fourth of the entire number of judges for terms of two years,

for four years, one-fourth for six years, and the remaining fourth years, respectively; and thereafter they shall be elected for terms of


97. The number of terms of the circuit courts to be held for each
nd city shall be prescribed by law. But no separate circuit court shall
for any city of the second class until the city shall abolish its existing
rt. The judge of one circuit may be required or authorized to hold

any other circuit or city.
5. SS. For the purposes of a judicial system, the cities of the State shall
ded into two classes. All cities shall belong to the first class which con-
s shown by the last United States census or other census provided by
en thousand inhabitants or more, and all cities shall belong to the second
which contain, as thus shown, less than ten thousand inhabitants. In
city of the first class, there shall be, in addition to the circuit court, a
The list of judicial circuits here given was fixed by an act approved March 27.
enacted under authority of Section 95 of this Article, by which the number of
to was increased from 34 to 31.
See Note No. 1.

Corporation court. In any city containing thirty thousand inhabitants or nuore. the General Assembly may provide for such additional courts as the public interest may require, and in every such city the city courts, as they now exist, shall continue until otherwise provided by law. In every city of the secvnd class, the corporation or hustings court, existing at the time this Constitution goes into effect, shall continue hereafter under the name of the corporation court of such city; but it may be abolished by it vote of a majority of the qualitied electors of such city, at an election held for the purpose, and whenever the office of judge of a corporation or hustings court of a city of the secour) class, whose salary is less than eight hundred dollars, shall become and remia vacant for ninety days consecutively, such court shall thereby cease to exist. In case of the abolition of the corporation or hustings court of any city of th second class, such city shall thereupon come in every respect within the juris diction of the circuit court of the county wherein it is situated, until otherwise provided by law, and the records of such corporation or hustings court shal. thereupon become a part of the records of such circuit court, and be trans ferred thereto, and remain therein until otherwise provided by law; and during the existence of the corporation or hustings court, the circuit (ourt of the county in which such city is situated, shall have concurrent jurisdiction with said corporation or hustings court in all actions of law and suits in equity.

Sec. 99. For each city court of record a judge shall be chosen by the vote of the two houses of the General Assembly. He shall, when chosen, pre sess the same qualifications as judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals, and during his continuance in office shall reside within the jurisdiction of the run over which he presides; but the judge of the corporation court of any corporation having a city charter, and less than five thousand inhibitants, maç reside outside its corporate limits; and the same person may be judge of such arporation court and judge of the corporation court of some other city lavi less than ten thousand inhabitants. at the first election of said judges unde: this Constitution, the General Assembly shall elect, as nearly as practicat one-fourth of the entire number for terms of two years, one-fourth for fel: years, one-fourth for six years, and the remaining fourth for eight years: 200 thereafter they shall be elected for ternis of eight years. The judges of courts in cities of the first class may be required or iluthorized to hold circuit courts of any county and the circuit courts of any city.

SEC. 100. The General Assembly shall have power to establish such vor or courts of land registration as it may (eem proper for the administration ** any law it may adopt for the purpose of the settlement, registration. trauste. or assurance of titles to land in the State, or any part thereof.

SEC. 101. The General Assembly shall have power to confer upon the ceria of the several circuit courts jurisdiction, to be exercised in the manner and under the regulations to be prescribed by law, in the matter of the aduisce of wills to probate, and of the appointment and qualitication of guardians per sonal representatives, curators, appraisers, and committees of the estates persons who have been adjudgel insane or convicted of felony, and in the matter of the substitution of trustees.

SEC. 102. All the judges shall be commissioned by the Governor. 'DT shall receive such salaries and allowances as may be determined by law wib the limitations fised by the ('onstitution, the amount of which shall not be increased or diminished during their terms of office. Their terms of office si commence on the first day of February next following their election, and we ever a vacancy occurs in the office of judge, his successor shall be pleted f' the unexpired term.

SEC, 103. The saries of the judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals és be not less than four thousand dollars per annum, and shall be paid by to State.

The salary of the judge of each circuit court shall be not less than to thousand dollars per annum, one-half of which shall be paid by the State to other half by the counties and cities composing the circuit, according to tbrespective population : except that of the salary of the judge of the eira! court of the city of Richmond, the State shall pay the proportion which it!

e city of Richmond. The salary of a judge of a city court rst class shall be not less than two thousand dollars per

which shall be paid by the State, the other half by the f the aforesaid salaries of said judges shall be paid out of

the State to be reimbursed by the respective counties and lay, by an ordinance, increase the salaries of 'its city or ciry one or inore' of them as it may deem proper, and the inud wholly by the city, but shall not be enlarged or diminterm' of office of the judge. Each city containing less than abitants shall pay the salary of the judge of its corporation idges may be removed from ottice for cause, by il concurrent ses of the General Assembly; but a majority of all the members house must concur in such rote, and the cause of removal shall le journal of each house. The judge against whom the General ve about to proceed shall have notice thereof, accompanied by a ses allegexl for his removal, at least twenty days before the day r house of the General Assembly shall' act thereon. So judge of the Supreme Court of Appeals, of the circuit court, court of record shall practice law, within or without this State, nold any other office of public trust during his continuance in that the judge of a corporation or hustings court' in the city of ss may hold the office of commissioner in chancery of the circuit county in which the city is located.

Writs shall run in the name of the "Commonwealth of Virginia," ed by the clerks of the several courts. Indictments shall conclude peace and dignity of tbe Commonwealth." . An Attorney General shall be elected by the qualified voters of

the same time and for the same term as the Governor; and the election shall be ascertained in the same manner. He shall be comy the Governor, perform such duties and receive such compensation prescribed by law, and shall be removable in the manner prescribed moval of judges. 8. The General Assembly shall provide for the appointment or elecor the jurisdiction of such justices of the peace as the public interest re. 09). The General Assembly sliall provide by whom and in what nanimations for bail shall be heard and determined.

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110. There shall be elected by the qualified voters of each county nty treasurer, one sheriff, one iittorney for the Commonwealth, and mty Cerk, who shall be the clerk of the circuit court. There shall be by the qualified voters of each county, for four years, commissioners revenue for each county, the number, duties and compensation of whom se prescribed by law. Enere shall be appointed for each county, in such manner is may be proby law, one superintendent of the poor and one county surveyor.: FC. 111. The magisterial districts shall, imtil changed by law, remain Il constituted; provided, that hereafter no additional districts shall be containing less than thirty square miles. In each district there shall be ed by the qualified voters thereof one supervisor. The supervisors of the iets shall constitute the board of supervisors of the county, which shall et at stated periods and at other times as often as may be necessáry, lay couty and district levies, pass upon all claims against the county, subject

Amendment proposed and adopted by the general assembly of 1908, re-adopted the general assembly of 1910, ratified, on Nov. $, 1910, and declared effective on EC. 5, 1910.

to such appeal is may be provided by law, and perform such duties as may be required by law,

SEC. 112. All regular elections for county and district officers shall be held on Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and all of said officers shall enter upon the duties of their offices on the first day of January next suceeding their election, and shall hold their respective offices for the term of four years except that the county clerk shall hold office for eight years; provided. that the term of the clerks first elected under this Constitution shall begin on the first of February, nineteen hundred and four, and end on the first of January, nineteen hundred and twelve.

SEC. 113. No person shall at the same time hold more than one of the offices mentioned in this article. Any officer required by law to give bond may be required to give additional security thereon, or to execute a new bond, and in default of so doing his office shall be declared vacant.

SEX, 114. Counties shall not be made responsible for the acts of the sheriffs.

SEC. 115. The General Assembly shall provide for the examination of the books, accounts and settlements of county and city officers who are charged with the collection and disbursement of public funds,

AIRTICLE vui. ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT OF CITIES AND TOWNS. SEC. 116. As used in this article, the words "incorporated communities shall be construed to relate only to cities and towns. All incorporated communities, having within detined boundaries a population of five thousand or more. shall be known as cities; and all incorporated communities having within de fined boundaries it population of less than five thonsand, shall be known as towus. in determining the population of such cities and towns the General Assembly shall be governed by the last United States census, or such other enumeration as may be made by authority of the (teneral Issembly; but both ing in this section shall be constrned to repeal the charter of any incorporated community of less than five thousand inhabitants having a city charter at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or to prevent the abolition by surt incorporated communities of the corporation or hustings court thereof.

SEC. 117. General laws for the organization and government of cities and towns shall be enacted by the General Assembly, and no special act shall li passed in relation thereto, except in the manner provided in Article Four of this Constitution, and then only by a recorded vote of two-thirds of the bienbers elected to each house, and except also in the case of cities having mere than fifty thousand inhabitants as hereinafter provided. But each of the cities and towns of the State having at the time of the adoption of this amendmeat a municipal charter may retain the same, except so far as it shall be repeale or amended by the General Assembly; provided that every such charter is hereby a mended so as to conform to all the provisions, restrictions and powers i forth in this article, or otherwise provided in this Constitution,

Notwithstanding, however, anything in this article containel, the Genera. Assembly may, by general or by special act (passed as prescribed in Articia Four of this Constitution), depart in any respect (except as otherwise in this section expressly provided) from the form of organization and government prescribed by this article for cities and towns, and may provide from time tu time for the various cities and towns of the Commonwealth, such form of forms of municipal government as the General Assembly may deem best; but no form or forms of government authorized by the second paragraph of ths section shall become operative except is to such cities or towns as may there after adopt the same by a majority vote of its qualified electors at an electia to be held as may be prescribed therefor by law. All the limitations on the powers of the councils of cities and towns imposed by this article shall apps in like manner to the principal legislative authority under any form of goren ment which may be authorized hereunder. The term "council," as used in sections one hundred and twenty-five and one hundred and twenty-seren of this

e construed to include the body which, under any form of it. shall be vested with the principal legislative authority sembly, for the purpose of this article, may classify cities opulation, but the maximum population prescribed for any he minimum for the same class by at least ten thousand. ply, at the request, made in manner which may be prescribed

having a population of over fifty thousand inhabitants, may in of government for such city. charters enacted pursuant to the provisions of this section co the provisions of this constitution relating expressly to

of courts, attorneys for the Commonwealth, commissioners reasurers and city sergeants.4

each city which has a court in whose office deeds are adthere shall be elected for a term of eight years by the qualuch city a clerk of said court, who shall perform such other, e required by law,

be elected in like manner and for a like term all such addi.' courts for cities as the General Assembly may prescribe, or as ized by law, so long as such courts shall continue in existence.

of less than thirty thousand inhabitants shall there be more of the court, who shall be cerk of all the courts of record in


In every city, so long as it has a corporation court, or a separate there shall be elected for 'a term of four years by the qualified h city, one attorney for the Commonwealth, who shall also, in having a separate circuit court, be the attorney for the Commonich circuit court.

city there shall be elected for a terin of four years, in a manner ed by law, one con missioner of revenue, whose duties and compenbe prescribed by law.5 ). In every city there shall be elected by the qualified voters thereof basurer, for a term of four years; one city sergeant, for a terın of

whose duties shall be prescribed by law; and a mayor, for a term ars, who shall be the chief executive oficer of such city. All city officers, whose' election or appointment is not provided for by this on, shall be elected by the electors of such cities or towns, or of sion thereof, or appointed by such authorities thereof as the General shall designate. mayor shall see that the duties of the various city officers, members olice and fire depa rtments, whether elected or appointed, in and for s, are faithfully performed. He shall have power to investigate their ve access to all books and documents in their offices, and may examine nd their subordinates on oath. The evidence given by persons so examall not be used against them in any criminal proceedings. He shall also ower to suspend such officers, and the members of the police and fire ments, and to remove such officers, and also such members of said deents when authorized by the General Assembly, for misconduct in office glect of duty, 'to be specified in the order of the suspension or removal, 0 such removal shall be made without reasonable notice to the officer comed of, and an opportunity afforded him to be heard in person, or by sel, and to present testimony in his defense. From such order of Susion or removal, the city officer so suspended or removed shall have an

Amendment proposed and adopted by the general assembly of 1910, re-adopted the general assembly of 1912, and ratified on Nov. 5, 1912. * Amendment proposed and adopted by the general assembly of 1908, re-adopted the general assembly of 1910, and ratified on Nov. 8, 1910. By virtue of an error drafting the measure by which amended section 119 and amended section 120 were limitted to the electors, both sections were submitted as a single proposition and sted on together instead of separately as the constitution provides. Accordingly the eneral assembly of 1912 re-submitted sections 119 and 120 as separate propositions nd they were approved separately on Nov. 5, 1912.

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