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DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS. The powers vi the government of the State of Florida shall be divided into three departinents Legislative, Executive and Judicial; and no person properly belonging to one of the departments shall exercise any powers appertaining to either of the others, except in cases expressly provided by this constitution.
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. SATION 1. The Legislative authority of this State shall be vested in a Nute and a House of Representatives, which shall be designated, “The Legisilure of the State of Florida," and the sessions thereof shall be held at the at of government of the State.
SEX, 2. The regular sessions of the Legislature shall be held biennially, vmmencing on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in April, A. D. 1887, and on the corresponding day of every second year thereafter, but the Govpor may convene the same in extra session by his proclamation. Regular ssions of the Legislature may extend to sixty days, but no special session convenel by the Governor shall exceed twenty days.
SEC, 3. The members of the House of Representatives of the State of Florida shall be chosen biennially, beginning with the general election on the irst Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1898, and thereafter on the corresponding day of every second year.1
SEC. 1. Senators and members of the House of Representatives shall be July qualified electors in the respective counties and districts for which they vere chosen. The pay of members of the Senate and House of Representatives shall not exceed six dollars a day for each day of session, and mileage to and from their homes to the seat of government, not to exceed ten cents i mile each war, by the nearest and most practicable route.
Su, 1 No Senator or member of the House of Representatives shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed or elected to any civil fice under the Constitution of this state, that has been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time.
Suc, 6. Each House shall judge of the qualitications, elections and returns of its own members, choose its own officers, and determine the rules of its roletalings. The Senate shall, at the convening of each regular session thereof, choose from anong its own members a permanent President of the Senate, rho shall be its presiding officer. The House of Representatives shall, at the convening of each regular session thereof, choose from among its own fers a purmanent Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall be its presiding officer. Each House may punish its own members for disorderly conduci; and each House, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all of its Demir's present, may expel a member,
Src. 7. No person holding a lucrative office or appointment under the I'nited States or this State, shall be eligible to a seat in the Legislature of bis State.
SEC. . The seat of a member of either House shall be vacated on his permanent change of residence from the district or county from which he was elected.
SEC. 9. Either llouse during the session may punish by fine or imprisoument aux person not a member who shall have been guilty of disorderly or conteinptuous conduct in its presence, or of a refusal to obey its lawful sumtoons, but such imprisonment shall not extend beyond the final al journment of the session.
Section 3 has been amended twice; the first amendment was proposed by the legislature of 1889 and ratitied at the general election of 1890; the present amendment
priposud by the legislature of 1895 and ratified at the general election of 1896. The text of the amendment of 1890 is as follows: Section 3. The members of the Hlouse of Representatives shall be chosen biennially, beginning with the general lection on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in October, A. D. 169, and
Tavalta? Onida corresponding day of every second year.
SEC. 10. Either House shall have power to compel the attendance of witnesses upon any investigations held by itself, or by any of its committees; the manner of the exercise of such power shall be provided by law.
SEC. 11. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel tbe pres ence of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as it mar prescribe.
SEC. 12. Each House shall keep a Journal of its own proceedings, which shall be published, and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of any five members present, be entered on the Journal.
SEC. 13. The doors of each House shall be kept open during its session, except the Senate while sitting in Executive session; and neither shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, or to any other town than that in which they may be holding their session.
SEC. 14. Any bill may originate in either House of the Legislature, au after being passed in one House may be amended in the other.
SEC. 15. The enacting clause of every law shall be as follows: “Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida."
SEC. 16. Each law enacted in the Legislature shall embrace but one subject and matter properly connected therewith, which subject shall be briefly expressed in the title; and no law shall be amended or revised by reference to its title only; but in such case the act, as revised, or section, as amended, shall be re-enacted and published at length,
SEC. 17. Every bill shall be read by its title, on its first reading in either House, unless one-third of the members present desire it read: by sections. Every bill shall be read on three several days, unless two-thirds of the members present when such bill may be pending shall deem it expedient to dispense with this rule. Every bill shall be read by its sections on its second reading and on its final passage, unless on its second reading two-thirds of the members present in the House where such hill may be pending shall deem it expedient to dispense with this rule. The vote on the final passage of every bill or joint resolution shall be taken by yeas and nays, to be entered on the journal of each House: Prorided, That any greater revision of the entire law's embodied in any bill shall not be required to be read by sections upon its final passage, and its reading may be wholly dispensed with hy a two-thirds vote. A majority of the members present in each House shall be necessary to pass every bill or joint resolution. All bills or joint resolutions so passed shall be signed by the presiding officer of the respective. Houses and by the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives
SEC. 18. Vo law shall take effect until sixty days from the final adjournment of the session of the Legislature at which it may have been enacted. unless otherwise specially provided in such law.
SEC. 19, Accurate statements of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be attached to and published with the laws passed at every regular session of the Legislature.
SEC. 20. The Legislature shall not pass special or local laws in any of the following enumerated cases; that is to say, regulating the jurisdiction and duties of any class of officers, except municipal officers, or for the punishment of crime or misdemeanor; regulating the practice of courts of justice. except municipal courts; providing for changing venue of civil and criminal cases; granting livorces; changing the names of persous; vacating roads; summoning and empaneling grand and petit juries, and providing for their compensation; for assessment and collection of taxes for State and county purposes: for opening and conducting elections for State and county officers, and for designating the places of voting; for the sale of real estate belonging to minors. estates of uecedents, and of persons laboring umder legal disabilities; regulating the fees of officers of the State and county; giving effect to informal or invalid
Amendment proposed loy the legislature of 189.5 and ratified at the general election of 1900.
deeds or wills; legitimizing children; providing for the adoption of children ; reliering minors from legal disabilities; and for the establishment of ferries.
SEC. 21. In all cases enumerated in the preceding section all laws shall be general and of uniformi operation throughout the State, but in all cases not enumerated or excepted in that section, the Legislature may pass special or local laws; Provided, That no local or special bill shall be passed, unless notice of the intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where the matter or thing to be affected may be situated, which notice shall state the substance of the contemplated law, and shall be published at least sixty dars prior to the introduction into the Legislature of such bill, and in the mander to be provided by law. The evidence that such notice has been published shall be established in the Legislature before such bill shall be passed.
SEC. 22. Provision may be made by general law for bringing suit against the State as to all liabilities now existing or hereafter originating.
SEC. 23. Lotteries are hereby probibited in this State.
SEC, 24. The Legislature shall establish a uniform system of county and municipal government, which shall be applicable, except in cases where local or special laws are provided by the Legislature that may be inconsistent there. with.
SEC. 25. The Legislature shall provide by general law for incorporating such educational, agricultural, mechanical, mining, transportation, mercantile and other useful companies or associations as may be deemed necessary; but it shall not pass any special law on any such subject, and any such special law shall be of no effect; Provided, however, That nothing herein shall preclude special legislation as to a university or the public schools, or as to a ship canal across the State, 3
SEC. 26. Laws shall be passed regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue iufluence thereon from power, bribery, tumult or other improper practice.
SEC. 27. The Legislature shall provide for the election by the people or appointment by the Governor of all State and county oblicers not otherwise provided for by this Constitution, and tix by law their duties and compensation.
SEC. 28. Every bill that may have passed the Legislature shall, before becoming a law be presented to the Governor; if he approves it he shall sign it, but if not be shall return it with his objections to the House in which it originated. which, House shall cause such objections to be entered upon its Journal, and prolaul to recousider it; if, after such reconsideration, it shall pass both Houses by a two-thirds vote of members present, which vote shall be entered on the Journal of each House, it shall become a law.. If any bill shall not be returned within five days after it shall have been presented to the Governor (Sunday excepted) the same shall be a law. in like manner as if he hail signed it. If the Legislature, by its final adjournment, prevent such action, such bill shall be a law. mless the Governor, within ten days after the adjournment, shall tile such bill. with his objections thereto, in, the office of the Secretary of State. who shall lay the same before the Legislature at its next session, and if the same shal} receive two-thinds of the votes present, it shall become a law.
SEC, 29. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment; but by a vote of two-thirds of all members present shall be required to impeach any officer; and all impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sitting for that purpose the Senators shall be mon outlı or affirmation, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of twothirds of the Senators present. The Senate may adjourn to il tiseil day for the trial of any impeachment, and may sit for the purpose of such trial whether the House of Representatives be in session or not, but the time tixed for such trial shall not be more than six months from the time articles of impeachment shall be preferred by the House of Representatives. The Chief-Justice shall preside at all trials by impeachment except in the trial of the ChietJustice, when the Governor shall preside. The Governor, Administrative officers
Amendment proposed by the legislature of 1999 and ratified at the general clertion of 1900.
of the Executive Department, Justices of the Supreme Court and Judges of the ('ircuit Court shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in ottice, but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office and disqualitication to hold any office of honor, trust or profit under the State; but the party convieted or acquitted shall, nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial and punishment according to law.
SEC, 30. Laws making appropriations for the salaries of public officers and other current expieuses of the State shall contain provisions on no other subjeet.
SEC. 31. The Legislature shall elect United States Senators in the manmer prescribed by the Congress of the United States and by this Constitution.
Sic. 32. The repeal or amendment of any Criminal Statute shall not affect the prosecution or punishment of any crime committed before such repeal or a mendment.
SEC. 33. No statute shall be passed lessening the time within which a civil inction may be commenced on any cause of action existing at the time of its passage.
SEC. 31. Immediately upon the impeachment of any officer by the House of Representatives, he shall be disqualitiel from performing any of the duties of his office until acquitted by the Senate, and the Governor in such case shall at once appoint an incumbent to fill such office pending the impeachment proceedings. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, the President of the Senate, or in case of the death, resignation or inability of the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall act as Governor. pending the impeachment proceedings against the Governor, 4
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. Sex tios 1. The Supreme Executive power of the State shall be vested in : Chief Magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of Florida.
SEC. 2. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State at the time and places of voting for members of the Legislature, and shall hold his office for four years from the time of his installation, but shall not be eligible for re-election to said office the next succeeding term; Provided, That the first election for Governor under this Constitution shall be had at the time and places of voting for members of the Legislature and State officers, 1. I). 1888, and the term of office of the Governor then elected shall begin on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in January after his election.
SEC. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor who is not il qualitieel elector, and who has not been ten years a citizeu of the United States, ind five years it citizen and resident of the State of Florida, next preceding the time of his election: Provider, That these limitations of time shall not apply so the President of the Senate or Speaker of the House of Representatives when, linder this ('onstitution, the powers and duties of Governor shall devolve upon them.
SEC. 4. The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the military forces of the State, except when they shall be called into the service of tbe United States.
SEC. 7. The (invernur shall transact all Executive business with the officers of the Government, civil and military, and may require information in writing from the administrative officers of the Executive Department upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.
SEC. 6. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
SEC: 7. When wy ottice, from any cause, shall become vacant, and no mode is provided by this Constitution or by the laws of the State for filling such vacancy, the Governor shall have the power to fill such vacancy by granting a commission for the unexpirai term.
SEC, 8. The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the Legis
Section 34 is a new section; it was proposed by the legislature of 1897 and rittified at the general election of 1898.
Jature by proclamation, and shall in his proclamation state the purpose for which it is to be convened, and the Legislature when organized shall transact no legislative business other than that for which it is especially convened, or such other legislative business as the Governor may call to its attention while in session, except by a two-thirds vote of each House.
SEC. 9. The Governor shall communicate by message to the Legislature at Fach regular session information conceruing the condition of the State, and recommend such measures as he may deem expedient.
SEC. 10. In case of a disagreement between the two Houses with respect to the time of adjournment, the Governor shall have power to adjourn the Legislature to such time as he may think proper, provided it be not beyond the time tixed for the meeting of the next Legislature.
SEC. 11, The Governor shall have power to suspend the collection of fines and forfeitures, and graut reprieves for a period not exceeding sixty days, for all offences, except in cases of impeachment. In case of conviction for treason be shall have power to suspend the execution of sentence until the case shall be reported to the Legislature at its next session, when the Legislature shall either Bardou, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve; and if the Legislature shall fail or refuse to make disposition of such case, the senrence shall be enforced at such time and place as the Governor may direct. He shall communicate to the Legislature, at ihe beginning of every session, every ase of fine or forfeiture remitted, or reprieve, pardon or commutation granted, stating the name of the convict, the crime for which he was convicted, the senTence, its date and the date of its remission, commutation, pardon or reprieve.
SEC. 12. The Governor, Secretary of State, ('omptroller, Attorney-General and commissioner of Agriculture, or a major part of them, of whom the Governor shall be one, may, upon such conditions and with such limitations and restrictions as they may deem proper, remit tines and forfeitures, commute anishment, and grant pardon after conviction, in all cases except treason and impeachments, subject to such regulations as may be prescribed by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons
Sec. 13. The Governor may, at any time, require the opiuion of the Justices of the Supreme Court as to the interpretation of any portion of this ('onstitution upon any question affecting his Executive powers and duties, and the Justices shall render such opiniou in writing.
SEC. 14. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and under the authority of the State of Florida, sealed with the great seal of the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.
SEC. 15. All officers that shall have been appointed or elected, and that are not liable to impeachment, may be suspended from office by the Governor for malfeasance, or misfeasance, or neglect of duty in office, for the commission of any felony, or for drunkenness or incompetency, and the cause of suspension shall be communicated to the officer suspended and to the Senate at its next session. And the Governor, by and with the consent of the Senate, may remove any officer, not liable to impeachment, for any cause above named. Every suspension shall continue until the adjournment of the next session of the Senate. unless the officer suspended shall, upon the recommendation of the Gorernor. be removed ; but the Governor may reinstate the officer so suspended upon satisfactory evidence that the charge or charges against him are untrue. If the Senate shall refuse to remove, or fail to take action before its adjournment, the officer suspended shall resume the duties of the otlice. The Governor shall have power to fill by appointment any office, the iucumbeut of which has been suspended. No otticer suspended who shall under this section resume the duties of his office, shall suffer any loss of salary or other compensation in consequence of such suspension. The suspension or removal herein authorized shall not relieve the officer from indictment for any misdemeanor in otfice.
SEC. 16. The Governor shall appoint all commissioned otticers of the State Militia, including an adjutant general for the State, with rank of brigadier
*Amendment proposed by the legislature of 1895 und ratified at the general election of 1896.