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less than fifteen thousand, and cities and towns of the fourth class, five per centum; cities and towns of the fifth and sixth classes, three per centum;' illd counties, taxing districts and other municipalities, two per centum: Provided: Iny city, town, county, taxing district or other municipality may conrract an indebtedness in excess of such limitations when the same has been anthorized under laws in force prior to the adoption of this Constitution; or when necessary for the completion of and payment for a public improvement undertaken and not completed and paid for at the time of the adoption of this Constitution : And provided further, If, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, the aggregate indebtedness, bonded or floating, of any city, town, county, taxing district or other municipality, including that which 'it has been or may be authorized to contract as herein provided, shall exceeil the limit herein prescribed, then no such city or town shall be authorized or permitted to increase its indebtedness in an amoumt exceeding two per centum, and no such county, taxing district or other municipality, in an amount exmling one per centum, in the aggregate upon the value of the taxable property therein, to be ascertained as herein provided, until the aggregate of its indebtedness shall have been reduced below the limit herein fixed, and thereafter it shall not exceed the limit, unless in case of emergency, the pubhc health or safety should so require. Nothing herein shall prevent the issue of renewal bonds, or bonds to fund the floating indebtedness of any city, towy, county, taxing district or other municipality.

Sec. 159. Whenever any county, city, town, taxing district or other munic: ality is authorized to contract an indebtedness, it shall be required, at the same time, to provide for the collection of an annual tax sufficient to pay the interest on said indebtedness, and to create a sinking fund for the payment: of the principal thereof, within not more than forty years from the time of toatracting the same.

SEC. 160. The Mayor or Chief Executive, Police Judges, members of legig: latire boards or councils of towns and cities shall be elected by the qualified soters thereof: Provided, The Mayor or Chief Executive and Police Judges of the towns of the fourth, fifth and sixth classes may be appointed or elected as provided by law. The terms of office of Mayors or Chief Executives and Police Judges shall be four years, and until their successors shall be gualfied; and of members of legislative boards, two years. When any ctiy of the first or second class is divided into wards or districts, members of legis latire boards shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of said city, but M selected that an equal proportion thereof shall reside in each of the said Wards or districts; but when in any city of the first, second or third class, there are two legislative boards, the less numerous shall be selected from and eleted by the voters at large of said city; but other officers of towns or cities shall be elected by the qualified voters therein, or appointed by the loca). authorities thereof, as the General Assembly may, by a general law, provide ; but when elected by the voters of a town or city, their terms of office shall be four years, and until their successors shall be qualified. No Mayor .or Chief Executive or fiscal officer of any city of the first or second class, after the expiration of the term of office to which he has been electeil under this con' stitution, shall be eligible for the succeeding term. "Fiscal officer" shall not include an Auditor or Assessor, or any other officer whose chief duty is not the collection or holding of public moneys. The General Assembly shall prescribe the qualifications of all officers of towns and cities, the manner in and causes for which they may be removed from office, and how vacancies in such offices may be filled.

SEC. 161. The compensation of any city, county, town or municipal officer shall not be changed after his election or appointment, or during his term of office; nor shall the term of any such officer be extended beyond the period for which he may have been elected or appointed.

Sec. 162. No county, city, town or other municipality shall ever be anthorized or permitted to pay any claim created against it. under any agreement or contract made without express authority of law, and all such unauthorized agreements or contracts shall be pull and void.

SEC. 154. The General Assembly shall prescribe such laws as may be necessary for the restriction or prohibition of the sale or gift of spirituous vinous or malt liquors on election days.

Sec. 155. The provisions of sections one hundred and forty-five to on hundred and fifty-four, inclusive, shall not apply to the election of schoo trustees and other common school district elections. Said elections shall regulated by the General Assembly, except as otherwise provided in this con stitution,

MUNICIPALITIES. SEC. 156. The cities and towns of this Commonwealth, for the purpos of their organization and government, shall be divided into six classes. Th organization and powers of each class shall be defined and provided for n ġeneral laws, so that all municipal corporations of the same class shall įN: sess the same powers and be subject to the same restrictions. To the firs class shall belong cities with a population of one hundred thousand or more to the second class, cities with a population of twenty thousand or more, an less than one hundred thousand; to the third class, cities with a populatio of eight thousand or more, and less than twenty thousand ; to the fourth clas cities and towns with a population of three thousand or more, and less that eight thousand; to the fifth class, cities and towns with a population of on thousand or more, and less than three thousand; to the sixth class, town with a population of less than one thousand. The General Assembly sha assign the cities and towns of the Commonwealth to the classes to which the respectively belong,' and change assignments made as the population of sai cities and towns may increase or decrease, and in the absence of other sati factory information as to their population, shall be governed by the last pri ceding Federal census in so doing; but no city or town shall be transferre from one class to another, except in pursuance of a law previously enacte and providing therefor. The General Assembly, by a general law, shall pr vide how towns may be, organized, and enact laws for the government of su towns 'until the same are assigned to one or the other of the classes aboy named; but such assignment shall be made at the first session of the Gener: Assembly after the organization of said town or city.

SEC. 157. The tax rate of cities, towns, counties, taxing districts ali other municipalities, for other than school purposes, shall not, at any tiny exceed the following rates upon the value of taxable property therein, riz For all towns or cities having a population of fifteen thousand or more, or dollar and fifty cents on the hundred dollars; for all towns or cities havin less than fifteen thousand and not less than ten thousand, one dollar on th hundred dollars; for all towns or cities having less than ten thousand. seventi Aive cents on the hundred dollars; and for counties and taxing districts, fift cents on, the hundred dollars; 'unless it should be necessary to enable sur city, town, county, or taxing district to pay the interest on, and provide sinking fund for the extinction of, indebtedness contracted before the ado tion of this Constitution. No county, city, town, taxing district, or oth municipality shall be authorized or permitted to become indebted, in au manner or for any purpose, to an amount exceeding, in any year, the incom and revenue provided for such year, without the assent of two-thirds of this voters thereof, voting at an election to be held for that purpose; and an indebtedness contracted in violation of this section shall be void. Vor shal 'such contract be enforceable by the person with whom niade; nor shall sur municipality ever be authorized to assume the same.

Sec. 158. The respective cities, towns, counties, taxing districts. aut municipalities shall not be authorized or permitted to incur indebtedness to an amount, including existing indebtedness, in the aggregate exceeding the following named maximum percentages on the value of the 'taxable property therein, to be "estimated by the assessment next before the last assessment previous to the incurring of the indebtedness, viz. : Cities of the first an second classes, and of the third class having a population exceeding fifteen thousand, ten per centum; cities of the third class haring å population of

less than fifteen thousand, and cities and towns of the fourth class, five per centum; cities and towns of the fifth and sixth classes, three per centum;' and counties, taxing districts and other municipalities, two per centum: Prosided: ing city, town, county, taxing district or other municipality malý coniract an indebtedness in excess of such limitations when the same has been juthorized under laws in force prior to the adoption of this Constitution; or when necessary for the completion of and payment for a public improvement nudertaken and not completed and paid for at the time of the adoption of this Constitution: And provided further, If, at the time of the adoption of tiis Constitution, the aggregate indebtedness, bonded or floating, of any city; town, county, taxing district or other municipality, including that which it has been or may be authorized to contract as herein provided, shall exceed? the limit herein prescribed, then no such city or town shall be authorized or jermitted to increase its indebtedness in an amount exceeding two per centum, and no such county, taxing district or other municipality, in an amount existuling one per centum, in the aggregate upon the value of the taxable property therein, to be ascertained as herein provided, until the aggregate of its indebtedness shall have been reduced below the limit herein fixed, and there after it shall not exceed the limit, unless in case of emergency, the puble bealth or safety should so require. Nothing herein shall prevent the issue of renewal bonds, or bonds to fund the floating indebtedness of any city, town, tuunty, taxing district or other municipality.

SEC. 159. Whenever any county, city, town, taxing district or other munie: inlity is authorized to contract an indebtedness, it shall be required, at the me time, to provide for the collection of an annual tax sufficient to pay the nterest on said indebtedness, and to create a sinking fund for the payment of the principal thereof, within not more than forty years from the time of atracting the same.

SEC. 160. The Mayor or Chief Executive, Police Judges, members of legig: htire boards or councils of towns and cities shall be elected by the qualified Tolers thereof: Provided, The Mayor or Chief Executive and Police Judges of the towns of the fourth, fifth and sixth classes may be appointed or elected as provided by law. The terms of office of Mayors or Chief Executives and Police Judges shall be four years, and until their successors shall be qualined, and of members of legislative boards, two years. When any ctiy of the first or second class is divided into wards or districts, members of legis latire boards shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of said city, but Ni selected that an equal proportion thereof shall reside in each of the said panis or districts; but when in any city of the first, second or third class, there are two legislative boards, the less numerous shall be selected from and Herted by the voters at large of said city; but other officers of towns or cities shall be elected by the qualified voters therein, or appointed by the local authorities thereof, as the General Assembly may, by a general law, provide : but when elected by the voters of a town or city, their terms of office shall be four years, and until their successors shall be qualified. No Mayor :or Chief Executive or fiscal officer of any city of the first or second class, after the expiration of the term of office to which he has been electerl imder this Con. stitution, shall be eligible for the succeeding term. “Fiscal officer" sball pot. include an Auditor or Assessor, or any other officer whose chief duty is not the collection or holding of public moneys. The General Assembly sball preuribe the qualifications of all officers of towns and cities, the manner in an: causes for which they may be removed from office, and how vacancies in such offices may be filled.

SEC. 161. The compensation of any city, county, town or municipal officer shall not be changed after his election or appointment, or during his term of office; nor shall the term of any such officer be extended beyond the period for which he may have been elected or appointed.

SEC. 162. No county, city, town or other municipality shall ever be anthorized or permitted to pay any claim created against it. under any agreement or contract made without express authority of law, and all such unauihorized agreements or contracts shall be null and void.

SEC, 103. No street railway, gas, water, steam heating, telephone, or ele tric light company, within a city or town, shall be permitted or authorized to construct its tracks, lay its pipes or mains, or erect its poles, posts or other apparatus along, over, minder or across the streets, alleys or public ground: of a city or town, without the consent of the proper legislative bodies or boards of such city or town being first obtained; but when charters have been here tofore granted conferring such rights, and work has in good faith been begui thereunder, the provisions of this section shall not apply.

SEC, 164. No county, city, town, taxing district or other municipality shall be authorized or permitted to grant any franchise or privilege, or make any contract in reference thereto, for a term exceeding twenty years. Before granting such franchise or privilege for a term of years, such municipality shall first, after due advertisement, receive bids therefor publicly, and award the same to the highest and best bidder; but it shall have the right to rejec any or all bids. This section shall not apply to a trunk railway.

Sec. 165. No person shall, at the same time, be a State officer or : deputy officer, or member of the General Assembly, and an officer of any county: city, town, or other municipality, or an employee thereof; und 11 person shall, at the same time, fill two municipal offices, either in the same or different municipalities, except as may be otherwise provided in this Con stitution; but a Notary Public, or an officer of the militia, shall not be inel igible to hold any other office mentioned in this section.

SEC. 166. All acts of incorporation of cities and towns heretofore granted and all amendments thereto, except as provided in section one hundred and sixty-seven, shall continue in force under this Constitution, and all City ani Police Courts established in any city or town shall remain, with their present powers and jurisdictions, until such time as the General Assembly shall pro vide by general laws for the government of towns and cities, and the officer and courts thereof; but not longer than four years from and after the firs day of January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-one, within which time the General Assembly shall provide by general laws for the government of towns and cities, and the officers and courts thereof, as provided in this Constitution.

SEC. 167. All city and town officers in this State shall be elected on appointed as provided in the charter of each respective town and city, until the general election in November, 1893, and until their successors shall be elected' and qualified, at which time the terms of all such officers shall expire; and at that election, and thereafter as their terms of office may expire, all officers required to be elected in cities and towns by this Constitution, or by general laws enacted in conformity to its provisions, shall be elected at the general elections in November, but only in the odd years, except members of municipal legislative boards, who may be elected either in the even or odd years, or part in the even and part in the odd years: Provided. That the terms of office of Police Judges, who were elected for four years at the August election, eighteen hundred and ninety, shall expire August thirty-first, eighteen hundred and ninety-four, and the terms of Police Judges elected in Yorember, eighteen hundred and ninety-three, shall begin September first, eighteen huidrel and ninety-four, and continue until the November election, eighten hundred and ninety-seven, and until their successors are elected and qualifiel

SEC. 168. No municipal ordinance shall fix a penalty for a violation thereof at less than that imposel by statute for the same offense.

A con viction or acquittal under either shall constitute it bar to another prosecution for the same offense.

REVENUE AND TAXATIOX. SEC. 169. The fiscal year shall commence on the first day of July in each vear, unless otherwise provided by law.

SEC. 170. There shall be exempt from taxation public property used for public purposes; places actually used for religious worship, with the groups attached thereto and used and appurtenant to the house of worship, yot esceeding one-half acre in cities or towns, and not exceeding two acres in the

country: places of burial not held for private or corporate profit, institutions of purely public charity, and institutions of education not used or employed for gain by any person or corporation, and the income of which is devoted solely to the cause of education; public libraries, their endowments, and the income of such property as is used exclusively for their maintenance; all parsona ges or residences owned by any religious society, and occupied as a home, and for no other purpose, by the minister of any religion, with not exceeding one-half acre of ground in towns and cities and two acres of ground in the country appurtenant thereto; household goods and other personal property of a person with a family, not exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars in value; crops grown in the year in which the assessment is made, and in the hands of the producer; and all laws exempting or commuting property from taxation other than the property above mentioned shall be void. The General Assembly may authorize any incorporated city or town to exempt manufacturiug establishments from municipal taxation, for a period not exceeding five years, its an inducement to their location.

SEC. 171. The General Assembly shall provide by law an annual tax, which with other resources, shall be sufficient to defray the estimated expenses of the Commonwealth for each fiscal year. Taxes shall be levied and collected for public purposes only and shall be uniform upon all property of the came class subject to taxation within the territorial limits of the authority erving the tax; and all taxes shall be levied and collected by general laws.

The General Assembly shall have power to divide property into classes and to determine what class or classes of property shall be subject to local txation. Bonds of the State and of counties, municipalities, taxing and school districts shall not be subject to taxation.

Any law passed or enacted by the General Assembly pursuant to the pro. risions of or under this amendment or amended section of the Constitution, classifying property and providing a lower rate of taxation on personal property, tangible or intangible, than upon real estate, shall be subject to the referwwum power of the people, which is hereby declared to exist to apply only to this section, or amended section. The referendum may be demanded by the people ilgaiust one or more items, sections or parts of any Act enacted pursuant to or under the power granted by this amendment, or amended section. The referendum petition shall be filed with the Secretary of State not more than four months after the final adjournment of the Legislative Assembly which passed the bill on which the referendum is demanded. The veto power of the Governor shall not extend to measures referred to the people under this wtion, All elections on measures referred to the people under this act shall be at the regular general elections, except when the Legislative Assembly shall order a special election. Any measure referred to the people shall take effert und become a lar when approved by the majority of the votes cast thereon, and not otherwise. The whole number of votes cast for the candidates for Gorernor at the regular election last preceding the filing of any jetition shall be the basis upon which the legal voters necessary to sign such petition shall be counted. The power of the referendum shall be ordered by the Legislative Assembly at any time any acts or bills are enacted, pursuant to the power granted under this section or amended section, prior to the year of one thousand nine hundred and seventeen. After that time, the power of the refereinum may be ordered either by the petition signed by five per cent of the legal roters or by the Legislative Assembly at the time said acts or bills are enacted. The General Assembly enacting the bill shall provide il wily by which the act shall be submitted to the people. The filing of al referendum petition ilgainst one or more items, sections or parts of an act shall not delay the remainder of that act from becoming operative.1.

SEC. 172. All property, not exempted from taxation by this Constitution, shall be assessed for taxation at its fair cash value, estimated at the price it would bring at a fair voluntary sale; and any othicer, or, other person

i Aniendment proposed by the legislature of 1914 and ratified at of November 2, 1915.

the election

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