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written petition therefor, shall order such measure submitted to the people at a special election not less than four nor more than six months after his proclamation thereof.

“Sect. 18. The electors may propose to the legislature for its consideration any bill, resolve or resolution, including bills to amend or repeal emergency legislation but not an amendment of the state constitution, by written petition addressed to the legislature or to either branch thereof and filed in the office of the secretary of state or presented to either branch of the legislature at least thirty days before the close of its session. Any measure thus proposed ly not less than twelve thousand electors, unless enacted without change by the legislature at the session at which it is presented, shall be submitted to the electors together with any amended form, substitute, or recommendation of the legislature, anul in such nanner that the people can choose between the competing measures or reject both. When there are competing bills and neither receives a majority of the votes given for or against both, the one receiving the most votes shall at the next general election to be held not less than sixty days after the first vote thereon be submitted by itself if it receives more than one-third of the votes given for and against both. If the measure initiated is enacted by the legislature without change, it shall not go to a referendum vote unless in pursuance of a demand made in accordance with the preceding section. The legislature may order a special election on any measure that is subject to a rote of the people. The governor may, and if so requested in the written petitions addressed to the legislature, shall, by proclamation, order any measure proposed to the legislature by at least twelve thousand electors as herein provided, and not enacted by the legislature with out change, referred to the people at a special election to be held not less than four or more than six months after such proclamation, otherwise said measure shall be voted upon at the next general election held not less than sixty days after the recess of the legislature, to which such measure was proposed.

“Sect. 19. Any measure referred to the people and approved by a majority of the votes given thereon shall, unless it later date is specified in said meas. ure, take effect and become a law in thirty days after the governor has made public proclamation of the result of the vote on said measure, which he shall do within ten days after the vote thereon has been canvassed and determined, The veto power of the governor shall not extend to any measure approved by vote of the people, and any measure initiated by the people and passed by the legislature without change, if vetoed by the governor and if his veto is sustained by the legislature shall be referred to the people to be voted on at the next general election. The legislature may enact measures expressly conditioned upon the people's ratification by a referendum vote.

"Sect. 20. As used in either of the three preceding sections the words 'electors' and 'people' mean the electors of the state qualified to vote for governor; ‘recess of the legislature' means the adjournment without day of a session of the legislature; 'general election' means the November election for choice of presidential electors or the September election for choice of governor and other state and county officers; 'measure' means an act. bill. resolve or resolution proposed by the people, or two or more such, or part or parts of such, as the case may be; 'written petition' means one or more petitions written or printed, or partly written and partly printed, with the original signatures of the petitioners attached, verified as to the authenticity of the signatures by the oath of one of the petitioners certified thereon, and accompanied by the certificate of the clerk of the city, town or plantation in which the petitioners reside that their names appear on the voting list of his city. town or plantation as qualified to vote for governor. The petitions shall set forth the full text of the measure requested or proposed. The full text of a measure submitted to il vote of the people under the provisions of the constitution need not be printed on the official ballots, but, until otherwise prin vided by the legislature, the secretary of state shall prepare the ballots in such form as to present the question or questions concisely and intelligibly.

“Sect. 21. The city council of any city may establish the initiative and refer

endum for the electors of such city in regard to its municipal affairs, provided that the ordinance establishing and providing the method of exercising such initiative and referendum shall not take effect until ratified by vote of a majority of the electors of said city, voting thereon at a municipal election. Provided, however. that the legislature may at any time provide a uniform method for the exercise of the initiative and referendum in municipal affairs."

"Sect. 22. Until the legislature shall enact further regulations not inconsistent with the constitution for applying the people's veto and direct initiative, the election officers and other officials shall be governed by the provisions of this constitution and of the general law, supplemented by such reasonable action as may be necessary to render the preceding sections self-executing."45

ARTICLE XXXII.

SUBMISSION OF AMENDMENTS. lectio tw in article ten as amended by the resolve of the fifty-eighth legislature passed March fourth, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, and adopted September eighth. eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, is hereby further amended by striking out the words: “in the manner prescribed by law, at their next biennial meetings in the month of September,” and inserting in place thereof the words: 'to meet in the manner prescribed by law for calling and holding biennial meetings of said inhabitants for the election of senators and representatives on the second Monday in September following the passage of said resolve;" so that said section as amended, shall read as follows:

"Section 2. The legislature, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, may propose amendments to this constitution; and, when any it loendments shall be so agreed upon, a resolution shall be passed and sent to the selectmen of the several towns, and the assessors of the several plantations, empowering and directing them to notify the inhabitants of their respective towns and plantations, to meet in the manner prescribed by law for calling and holding biennial meetings of said inhabitants for the election of senators and representatives, on the second Monday in September following the passage of said resolve, to give in their votes on the question, whether such amendments shall be made; and if it shall appear that a majority of the inhabitants voting on the question are in favor of such amendment, it shall become a part of this constitution.”:46

ARTICLE XXXIII.

SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. Augusta is hereby declared to be the seat of government of this state. 47

ARTICLE XXXIV.

MUNICIPAL INDEBTEDNESS. That the following amendment to the constitution of this state be proposed for the action of the legal voters of this state in the manner provided by the constitution, to wit, article twenty-two of said constitution, limiting municipal indebtedness, is hereby amended by inserting after the word “town" in the first line thereof, the following words, “having less than forty thousand inhabitants, according to the last census taken by the United States," and by inserting after the word "however" in the fourth line, the following words, “that cities having a population of forty thousand or more, according to the last census taken by the United States may create a debt or liability

4 Proposed by the legislature on Mch. 20, 1907, ratified on Sept. 14, 1908, effective on the first Wednesday of January, 1909.

** Proposed by the legislature on Mch. 28, 1907, ratified on Sept. 14, 1908, effective on the first Wednesday of January, 1909. See Article XXXVII of Amendments.

* Proposed by the legislature on Mch. 31, 1911, ratified on Sept. 11, 1911, effectle on Jan. 23, 1913.

wlrich'i single or in the aggregate with previous debt or liability. shall cual seven, and one-half per centum of the last regular valuation of suid city, that cities of forty thousand inhabitants or over, may, by a majority vote of their city government, increase the present rate of five per centum by oue-fourth of one per centum in any one municipal year until in not less than ten years, the maximum rate of seven and one-half per cent is reached, that any city fai. ing to take the increase in any one municipal year then the increase for that year is lost and no increase can be made until the next year as provided above, and provided further," so that suid article as amended, shall read as follows:

“No city or town having less than forty thousand inhabitants, according to the last census taken by the United States, shall hereafter create any debt on liability, wbich single or in the aggregate, with previous debts or liabilities shall exceed five per certum of the last regular valuation of said city or town: provided, however, that cities having it population of forty thousand or more according to the last census taken by the l'nited States, may create a debt or liability which single or in the aggregate, with previous debts or liabilities shall equal seven ind one-half per cent of the last regular valuation of sail city, that cities of forty thousand inhabitants, or over, may, by a majority yote of their city government, increase the present rate of five per centum by one-fourth of one per cent in any one municipal year, until, in not less than ten years, the maximum rate of seven and one-half per cent is reached, that any city failing to take the increase in any one municipal year then the increase for that year is lost and no increase can be made until the next yea as provided above, and provided further, that the adoption of this article shal' not be construed as applying to any fuml received in trust by said city or town, nor to any loan for the purpose of renewing existing loans, or for war or to temporary loans to be paid out of the money raised by taxes during the year in which they were made."18

ARTICLE XXXV.

STATE HIGHWAY BONDS, Jrticle nine of the constitution is hereby amended by adding the following section :

“Section 17. The legislature may authorize the issuing of bonds not excee] ing two million dollars in amount at any one time. Dyable within fori su years, it it rate of interest not exceeding four per centini per annum, payable senii-annually, which bonds or their proceeds shall be devoted solely to the building and maintaining of state highways; provider, however, that bonds issued and outstanding wider the authority of this section shall never, in the aggregate, exceed two million dollars; the expenditure of said money to have divided equitably among the several counties of the state."

Section fourteen of said article is amended by adding after the word "el cept," in the fifth line thereof, the following words: “For the purposes of building and maintaining of state lighways," so that said section fourteet as amended, shall read as follows:

“Section 14. The credit of the state shall not be directly or indirently loaned in any (ilse. The legislature shall not create any debt or debts, liabilit; or liabilities, on behalf of the state, which shall singly, or in the aggreutas with previous debts and liabilities hereafter incurred at any one time, excetti three hundred thousand dollars, except for the purposes of building and maini taining of state highways, to suppress insurrection, to repel invasion, or for purposes of war; but this amendment shall not be construed to refer to an money that has been or may be depositeul with this state by the government of the United States, or to any fund which the state shall hold in trusí four any Indian tribe."'49

48 Proposed by the legislature on Mch. 31, 1911, ratified on Sept. 11. 1911, effat. Ive Jan. 23. 1913,

49 Proposed by the legislature on Mch. 25, 1912, ratified on Sept. 9, 1912, efedi. ive on Jan, 2:3, 1913.

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ARTICLE XXXVI. CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY FOR TAXATION. Section eight of article nine of the constitution is hereby amended by adding to suid section the following words:. "But the legislature shall have power to levy a tax upon intangible personal property at such rate as it deems wise and equitable without regard to the rate applied to other classes of property.” so that said section as amended shall read as follows:

"SECTION 8. All taxes upon real and personal estate, assessed by authority of this state, shall be apportioned and assessed equally, according to the just value thereof; but the legislature shall have power to levy a tax upon intangible personal property at such rate as it deems wise and equitable without regard to the rate applied to other classes of property."50

ARTICLE XXXVII.

SUBMISSION OF AMENDMENTS. Section two in irticle ten as amended by the resolve of the fifty-eighth legislature passed March fourth, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, and adopted September eighth, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, as amended by the resolve of the seventy-thind legislature passed March twenty-eighth, nineteen hundred and seven, and adopted September fourteenth, nineteen hundred and eight, is hereby further amended by inserting after the word “plantations” in the seventh line of said section two the following words: “in the manner prescribed by law at the next biennial meetings in the month of September or," so that said section as amended shall read as follows:

"SECTION 2. The legislature, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, may propose amendments to this constitution; and when any amendments shall be so agreed upon, a resolution shall be passed and sent to the selectmen of the several towns, and the assessors of the several plantations 4D]wwering and directing them to notify the inhabitants of their respective towns and plantations in the manner prescribed by law at the next biennial meetings in the month of September or to meet in the manner prescribed by law for calling and holding biennial meetings of said inhabitants for the election of senators and representatives, on the second Monday in September following the passage of said resolve, to give in their votes on the question, whether such amendments shall be made; and if it shall appear that a majority of the inhabitants voting on the question are in favor of such amendment, it shall become a part of this constitution."51

** Proposed by the legislature on April 4, 1913, ratified on Nov. 4, 1913, effective Mch. 31. 1915.

#1 Proposed by the legislature on April 12, 1913, ratified on Nov. 4, 1913, effective Mch. 31, 1915.

CONSTITUTION OF MARYLAND-1867.*

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. We, the people of the State of Maryland, grateful to Almighty God fo our civil and religious liberty, and taking into our serious consideration th best means of establishing a good Constitution in this State for the sur foundation and more perinanent security thereof, declare:

ARTICLE 1. That all Government of right originates from the People is found in compact only, and instituted solely for the good of the whole and they have, at all times, the inalienable right to alter, reform or abolis their form of Government in such manner as they may deem expedient.

ART. 2. The Constitution of the United States, and the Laws made o which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all Treaties made, or whic shall be made, under the authority of the United States, are and shall b the Supreme Law of the State, and the judges of this state, and all the peopl of this state are, and shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution o Law of this State to the contrary notwithstanding.

ART. 3. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constiti tion thereof, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the State respectively, or to the People thereof.

ART. 4. That the People of this State have the sole and exclusive rigt of regulating the internal government and police thereof as a free, sovereig and independent State.

Art. 5. That the Inhabitants of Maryland are entitled to the Commo Law of England, and the trial by Jury, according to the course of that las and to the benefit of such of the English statutes as existed on the Fourth da of July, seventeen hundred and seventy-six; and which, by experience, has been found applicable to their local and other circumstances, and have bee introduced, used and practiced by the Courts of Law or Equity; and also all Acts of Assembly in force on the first day of June, eighteen hundred an sixty-seven; except such as may have since expired, or may be inconsistei with the provisions of this Constitution; subject, nevertheless, to the revisio of, and amendment or repeal by, the Legislature of this State. And th Inbabitants of Maryland are also entitled to all property derived to the from or under the Charter granted by His Majesty, Charles the First, t Caecilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore.

Art. 6. That all persons invested with the Legislative or Executive power of Government are Trustees of the Public, and as such, accountable for the conduct : Wherefore, whenever the ends of Government are perverted, an public liberty manifestly endangered, and all other means of redress are in effectual, the People may, and of right ought to reform the old, or establish new Government; the doctrine of nonresistance against arbitrary power an oppression is absurd, slavish and destructive of the good and happiness mankind.

ART. 7.' That the right of the People to participate in the Legislature the best security of liberty and the foundation of all free Government; for this purpose elections ought to be free and frequent, and every white mali citizen having the qualifications prescribed by the Constitution, ought to bar the right of suffrage.1

ART. 8. That the Legislative, Executive and Judicial powers of Govern

* The constitution of Maryland was drafted by a convention which assembled Annapolis on May 8, and adjourned on August 17, 1867. It was submitted to the voters on September 18, 1867, and was ratified by a vote of 47,152 in favor to 23,034 against. The constitution was submitted as a whole and no proposition was submitted separately. The constitution became effective on October 5, 1867.

1 The word "white" is obsolete under the provisions of the Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States.

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