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steam engines will also be included with parts of other engines in the designation "All other parts." Prior to 1918, boilers and also boiler tubes, each of which is covered in other Tariff Information Survers, were included with all other parts of engines, but in and since that year these articles have been listed separately. This is also the case with steam locomotives, which, as indicated, are discussed in a separate Tariff Information Survey.

The export statistics for the marine, stationary, and traction and caterpillar steam engines are given in this survey, and the sum of these is given as the total exports of steam engines. The statistics for “All other engines" and for "All other parts of engines are given

“ in the Survey on Internal Combustion Engines, as it is believed that these exports consisted in larger part of internal-combustion engines, although this is not quite certain and it is known that a considerable amount of steam-engine parts and many steam engines are included under these general designations. The importance of this overlap is indicated by the following figures showing the values of the total exports under these classifications:

Fiscal years.

"All other "All other engines." parts."

1913. 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918. 1919

$1, 430, 250 $3,766,112

932. 078 3, 356, 764

794, 361 2,956, 103 3, 462, 498 7.273, 523 5, 159, 196 117,652,7618 2, 894, 115 1919, 73N, 140 5, +77, 669 . 28, 695,085

Main increases to France, United Kingdom, and Canada, but exports to other countries oncept Australia practically doubled in 1917 as compared with previous year.

: Boilers and boiler tubes having a total value of $10,217,741 in 1918 and 315,316,355 in 1919 not inclu'el Sin 1917, but these were included prior to 1918.

Tractors constitute the largest single item in the exports of steam engines, although exceeded in importance by marine engines in 1919. The exports of marine engines show a remarkable increase in 1918 and 1919, although formerly relatively small. Since many of these engines are produced in the shipyards, the increase in exports may be directly attributed to the Great War and postwar stimulation in American shipbuilding. These figures do not include the value of engines in complete vessels. These do not appear in the Department of Commerce statistics. The total exports of all kinds of steam engines greatly increased after the outbreak of the war, in part because of the reduction of exports from European nations, but especially on account of the increased use of steam power in South America and the Far East. Canada is the main market for all three classes of steam engines, although steam tractors were sent in larger quantities to the United Kingdom (a large user but ordinarily able to supply its own requirements), and to European Russia in the fiscal year 1918. Cuba is a large customer for both traction and stationary steam engines and considerable quantities of both these classes are sold to other Latin American countries. Most of the shipments to these countries are of small engines, chiefly plain slide-valve engines, which, while not particularly economical in operation are well adapted to the needs of partially developed dis

tricts. These American engines are ordinarily much cheaper than those made in European countries and are sufficiently serviceable. The exports of high class stationary engines, particularly in the larger units, are comparatively small.

FOREIGN PRODUCTION.

Next to the United States, England is probably the largest producer and user of steam engines in the world. A large British export trade has been developed. Germany, France, and Belgium also are large exporters of steam engines. In general, the foreign articles are heavier built and more expensive than the engines made in this country. Swedish turbines, however, are of similar design to those made in this country and Sweden is a large exporter of several types of steam turbines, one model (Lungstrom) especially being installed in several British power plants, on account of its superior efficiency. These turbines, as well as the Parsons marine turbine, a British product, are also made under license in the United States for American consumption, although the requirements of other markets are chiefly supplied by manufacture in Europe.

The conditions of manufacture of steam engines in various foreign countries are similar to those in general machinery manufacture and need not be described here in detail. The general factors are the lower wages abroad, accompanied by less foreign output per employee owing to poorer equipment and organization and disproportionate attention to details of finish.

IMPORTS.

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The imports of steam engines in recent years have been negligible as compared with the domestic production. In the five years immediately preceding the outbreak of the war in Europe the maximum importation for any one year was valued at only $183,539 (1912). During the war the imports dropped to $9,357 in 1917 (fiscal year), but again increased in 1918. The imports during each quarter of the calendar year 1919 were unusually large, amounting to 52 engines, valued at $344,092. In the calendar year of 1920, 60 engines, valued at $148,878, were imported. As will be noted in the import statistics infra, there is also a very small importation of steam engines under the provisions for the free entry of material for the equipment, etc., of vessels.

The countries of origin of these imports are not published by the Department of Commerce. Inquiries among New York sales agents of the various American engine companies as to the character of the imports resulted in no information, most of them being surprised to discover that any foreign steam engines are coming into this country, A representative of one of the largest companies stated that the total imports even for the calendar year 1919 were less than one week's good business for a single American concern. Several invoices examined by the Tariff Commission in 1920 proved to be steam winches, chiefly for use on vessels.

PRICES.

The prices of steam engines vary widely, not only according to horsepower rating, but according to the type, efficiency, speed, steam pressure, and other factors. One manufacturer, for example, quotes various models of reciprocating steam engines, without condensing apparatus, as follows (November, 1920): 100 horsepower. $6,000 500 horsepower.

$12, 000 500 horsepower... 9,000 800 horsepower...

18,000 It will be noted that the cost per horsepower rating varies from about $16.50 to $60. The higher valuation is for a specially designed engine of relatively slow speed. This necessitates heavy construction per unit of power developed. Small engines are generally more expensive per horsepower than the larger units. The bulk of the American product, however, is priced at from $20 to $25 per horsepower in units of over 100 horsepower. The smaller engines generally run up to about $30 to $40 per horsepower, although there is a large sale in South America of an American engine which is priced in 1920 at as low as $20 per horsepower in units of 50 horsepower and less.

Turbine prices are frequently much lower than the prices of reciprocating types. On a horsepower basis the prices per horsepower show an even greater variation than those of reciprocating engines, owing to the fact that only slight changes in design and construction are required in engines with as wide a difference in rating as 200 to 700 horsepower. Many turbines are sold in direct connected units with generators, the price including the complete outfit. As illustrating the ordinary run of prices, a typical model capable of generating about 400 horsepower is sold in 1920 at $3,500, exclusive of auxiliary equipment. In general, turbine prices in the mediumsized units will probably range from about $5 to $10 per horsepower rating

The prices of steam engines have increased greatly since 1914. In the case of the cheapest models the increase is about 100 per cent, while in the larger units, and especially in the better quality of engines, increases of 50 per cent or less are reported. There has been no general flat advance. The prices of different models have apparently been independently determined by the different manufacturers.

TARIFF HISTORY,

Steam engines were first specifically mentioned in the American tariff in 1909, when they were made dutiable at 30 per cent. Prior to that they were included under the provisions for manufactures of metal, n. s. p. f., dutiable at 45 per cent in the acts of 1883, 1890, and 1897, and at 35 per cent in the act of 1894.

The duty was cut in half by the act of 1913, but there is no evidence that this had any material effect upon the number imported.

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS.

American manufacturers of steam engines are making rapid progress in foreign markets and are seemingly confident that they can meet competition in the American market. In spite of the compara

tively high wages paid in this country the domestic requirements are sufficient to permit the production of separate designs in large quantities. Domestic-built engines are peculiarly adapted to American requirements, and while frequently not so well built as those produced by their foreign competitors, they are satisfactory for the purposes for which they are designed. There is an adequate output of high-grade engines to satisfy domestic requirements, and even in these classes American prices are generally lower than the prices of similar engines in European countries. Rarely is the difference sufficient to permit the importation of European engines at competitive prices. Another factor which exerts a powerful influence in favor of the American manufacturer in the domestic market is the matter of repairs. American engines, almost without exception, are standardized to the extent that the parts of any one model are interchangeable and, if not actually kept in stock, can be supplied on short notice. In the case of foreign-built engines considerable delay may be involved in securing parts. There is the further risk that such parts in many cases may not be strictly interchangeable.

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Includes 11 marine steam turbines of 121,000 horsepower.
? Includes 9 automobile steam engines of 294 horsepower; value, $4,750.

Production of steam engines in United States--States.

(From Federal Census.)

1914

States.

Number

Horsepower.

Value.

5,715

1, 854

Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin.
New York..
Michigan.
Ohio..
Minnesota
New Jersey.
Indiana..
Massachusetts.
Mlinois..
All other..

1,519
3,331
1,260
1,115

705
720

937, 119 | $10, 200, 938
270, 114 4,363, 195
594,953 3, 402,368

64, 442 2,726, 979 127,587 2,576, 823 35, 215 1,311, 445 43, 768 1, 152, 957 29,649 1,026, 507 80, 516 958, 681 39, 997 781,390

142, 123 1,997,355 2,365, 483 30, 499,638

911 1,656

Total.

19, 280

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STEAM AND OTHER POWER ENGINES, AND PARTS OF-STEAM-MARINE.

(Fiscal years.)

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1 Included in "All other engines, and parts of" prior to 1912.

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