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those engagements, and of rendering them useful to the safety and tranquillity of the two parties; particularly in case Great Britain in resentment of that connexion and of the good correspondence which is the object of the said treaty, should break the peace with France, either by direct hostilities, or by hindering her commerce and navigation in a manner contrary to the rights of nations, and the peace subsisting between * the two crowns: and his majesty and [ *96 ] the said United States, having resolved in that case to join their councils and efforts against the enterprises of their common enemy, the respective plenipotentiaries empowered to concert the clauses and conditions proper to fulfil the said intentions, have, after the most mature deliberation, concluded and determined on the following articles :

In case of war between France and Great Britain, the cause to be common. Art. 1. If war should break out between France and Great Britain during the continuance of the present war between the United States and England, his majesty and the said United States shall make it a common cause, and aid each other mutually with their good offices, their counsels and their forces, according to the exigence of conjunctures, as becomes good and faithful allies.

The object of the alliance declared to be to maintain the absolute independence of the

United States.

Art. 2. The essential and direct end of the present defensive alliance is to maintain effectually the liberty, sovereignty, and independence, absolute and unlimited, of the said United States, as well in matters of government as of commerce.

Each party to act as it may deem most proper, to the annoyance of the common

enemy.

Art. 3. The two contracting parties shall each on its own part, and in the manner it may judge most proper, make all the efforts in its power against their common enemy, in order to attain the end proposed.

One party to act, in any given enterprise, in concert with the other; the quantity

and kind of succour of each to be regulated by a particular convention.

Art. 4. The contracting parties agree, that in case either of them should form any particular enterprise in which the concurrence of the other may be desired, the party whose concurrence is desired, shall readily and with good faith, join to act in concert for that purpose, as far as circumstances and its own particular situation * will permit; and in that case, they shall regulate, [ 97 ] by a particular convention, the quantity and kind of succour to be furnished, and the time and manner of its being brought into action, as well as the advantages which are to be its compensation.

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The British possessions in North America, or the Bermudas, if reduced, to belong to

the United States.

Art. 5. If the United States should think fit to attempt the reduction of the British power, remaining in the northern parts of America, or the islands of Bermudas, those countries or islands, in case of success, shall be confederated with, or dependent upon the said United States.

The king of France renounces all claim to the Bermudas, &c. to possessions in

North America, which, previously to the treaty of 1763, or by that treaty, were acknowledged to belong to the British crown.

Art. 6. The most christian king renounces forever the possession of the islands of Bermudas, as well as of any part of the continent of North America, which, before the treaty of Paris in 1763, or in virtue of that treaty, were acknowledged to belong to the crown of Great Britain, or to the United States, heretofore called British colonies, or which are at this time, or have lately been under the power of the king and crown of Great Britain.

Islands captured in or near the gulf of Mexico, to appertain to France. Art. 7. If his most christian majesty shall think proper to atteck any of the islands situated in the gulf of Mexico, or near that gulf

, which are at present under the power of Great Britain, all the said isles, in case of success, shall appertain to the crown of France. Neither of the parties to conclude peace, without the consent of the other. Armis

not to be laid down, until the independence of the United States shall have been

sccured. Art. 8. Neither of the two parties shall conclude either truce or peace with Great Britain, without the formal consent of the other first obtained ; and they mutually engage not to lay down their [ *98 ) arms until the independence of the United States shall have been formally or tacitly assured, by the treaty or treaties that shall terminate the war.

No after claims, whatever may be the event of the war. Art. 9. The contracting parties declare, that being resolved to fulfil each on its own part, the clauses and conditions of the

present treaty of alliance, according to its own power and circumstances, there shall be no after claim of compensation on one side or the other, whatever may be the event of the war.

Other powers may be invited to make common cause against Great Britain. Art. 10. The most christian king and the United States agree to invite or admit other powers who may have received injuries from England, to make common cause with them, and to accede to the present alliance, under such conditions as shall be freely agreed to, and settled between all the parties.

Mutual guarantee of possessions and sovereignty.

Art. 11. The two parties guarantee mutually from the present time, and forever, against all other powers, to wit: The United States to his most christian majesty, the present possessions of the crown of France in America, as well as those which it may acquire by the future treaty of peace: And his most christian majesty guarantees on his part to the United States, their liberty, sovereignty, and independence, absolute and unlimited, as well in matters of government as cominerce, and also their possessions, and the additions or conquests that their confederation may obtain during the war, from any of the dominions now, or heretofore possessed by Great Britain in North America, conformably to the fifth and sixth articles above written, the whole as their possession shall be * ( *99 ] fixed and assured to the said states, at the moment of the cessation of their present war with England.

Explanation of the extent of the mutual guarantee of possessions and sovereignty.

Art. 12. In order to fix more precisely the sense and application of the preceding article, the contracting parties declare, that in case of a rupture between France and England, the reciprocal guarantee declared in the said article, shall have its full force and effect the moment such war shall break out; and if such rupture shall not take place, the mutual obligations of the said guarantee shall not commence until the moment of the cessation of the present war between the United States and England shall have ascertained their possessions.

Ratifications to be exchanged within six months.

Art. 13. The present treaty shall be ratified on both sides, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in the space of six months, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries, to wit:on the part of the most christian king, Conrad Alexander Gerard, royal syndic of the city of Strasburg, and secretary of his majesty's council of state; and on the part of the United States, Benjamin Franklin, deputy to the general congress from the state of Pennsylvania, and president of the convention of the same state ; Silas Deane, heretofore deputy from the state of Connecticut, and Arthur Lee, counsellor at law, have signed the above articles both in the French and English languages, declaring nevertheless, that the present treaty was originally composed and concluded in the French language, and they have hereunto affixed their seals. Done ai Paris, this sixth day of February, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight.

C. A. GERARD, [L. s.
B. FRANKLIN,
SILAS DEANE, L. s.
ARTHUR LEE. [L. s.]

L. s.

DOCUMENTS

RELATING TO

EXPEDITION FOR LOUISIANA.

Extrait des Registres Comptes des Indes, Expédition pour la

Louisianne (Tome ler) deposés aux Archives. Louis, par la grace de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre, à tous ceux qui ces presentes lettres verront, salut:

Etant necessaire pour le bien de notre service, l'utilité et l'avantage de la compagnie d'occident, d'etablir un commandant général dans la province de la Louisianne, au lieu et place du Sr. de L'Espinay, gouverneur de la dite province, nous avous crû ne pouvoir faire un meilleur choix que du Sr. Lemoine de Bienville, notre lieutenant de roi, en notre dite province de la Louisianne, pour remplir cette place; Vù les preuves qu'il nous a données, de la fidélité et affection à notre service, capacité et expérience depuis qu'il sert dans notre dite province où la commande pendant plusieurs années en l'absence des gouverneurs.

A ces causes, sur la présentation qui nous a été faite par les directeurs de la compagnie d'occident, du dit Sieur de Bienville.

Nous, de l'avis de notre très cher et tier amé oncle le Duc d'Orléans, régent, avous commis, ordonné et établi

, commettous ordonnons et etablissous le dit Sr. de Bienville, commandant général pour nous, en notre dite province de la Louisianne, pour, en la dite qualité, commander tant aux officiers, soldats, et gens de guerre que y sont ou pourrons être, qu'aux habitante de la dite province et autres, Français et etrangers, de quelque qualité et condition qu'ils puissent être, contenir les gent de guerre en bon ordre et police, suivant nos reglemens, faire vivre les habitans en union et concorde les uns avec les autres, y maintenir le commerce et trafic de la dite compagnie d'occident et généralement faire tout ce qu'il jugera à propos pour leur conservation et la gloire de notre nom et au surplùs, jouir de la dite charge aux honneurs, autorités préeminences et prérogatives qui y appartiennent et aux appointemens qui lui seront ordonnés; de ce faire lui avons donné et donnous pouvoir par ces dites prétentes; voulous cependant que le dit Sieur de

Bienville ne puisse faire des nouveaux etablissemens ni changer ceux qui sont deja faits, entreprendre des Guerres contre les sauvages, ni faire la paix ou alliances avec eux que du contentement des deputés de la dite compagnie d'occident résidante dans notre dite province de la Louisianne, et sur les deliberations que en seront prises, &ca.

Mandons à tous nos sujets de quelque qualité et condition qu'ils soyent, commandans, officiers, soldats, habitans et autres, de reconnaitre et faire reconnaitre le dit Sr. de Bienville en la dite qualité de commandant général de la province de la Louisianne, et lui obéir et entendre, sans y contrevenir en quelque sorte et maniere que ce soit, à peine de désobeissance.

Car tel est notre plaisir, en témoin de quoi nous avous fait apposer notre scel à ces dites présentes.

Donné à Paris le vingtieme jour de Septembre, l'an de grace, 1717, et de notre règne le troisieme: (Signé)

LOUIS. Et plus bas,

Par le Roi.

LE DUC D'ORLEANS, Regent present, et
PHELIPPEAUX.

Commission de Commandant sur la Riviere de la Mobile et Rivieres

y affluentes. Pour le Sieur de Boisbriant. Du 20, 7bre, 1717. Louis,

par
la
grace

de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre, &a. Etant nécessaire pour le bien de notre service, l'utitilé et l'avantage du commerce de la compagnie d'occident, d'établir un commandant de la riviere de la Mobile et rivieres y affluentes et de l'isle Dauphine, &ca.

A ces causes, sur la présentation qui nous a été faite par les directeurs de la compagnie d'occident, attachée sous le contre scel des présentes, du Sieur de Boisbriant.

Nous, de l'avis de notre très cher et très amé oncle le Duc d'Or. leans, regent, &ca.

L'ordonnons et etablissous par ces presentes signées de notre main commandant pour nous sur la riviere de la Mobile et rivieres y affluenses et à l'isle Dauphine, pour, en la dite qualité, y commander, &ca.

Mandons au Sieur de Bienville, commandant général pour nous en la dite province de la Louisianne, de la faire reconnaître en la dite qualité, et à tous capitaines, officiers et tous autres nos sujets et habitans de la dite riviere de la Mobile, &ca. de lui obéir, sous peine desobeissance.

Car tel est notre plaiser.

Donné à Paris le 20 Septembre, l'an de grace, 1717, et de notre regne le troisiéme.

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