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Passed.

Failed.

Average age.

Education.

Education.

Kind of examination.

Examined,

Common school.

Academic.

Business college.

High school.

Collegiate.

Common school.

Academic.

Business college.

High school.

Total.

Collegiate.

Per cent passed.

Total.

Passed.

Failed,

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TABLE 11.Summary of preceding tables, showing for all grades of competitors in all branches of the classified civil service, etc.-Continued.

Total customs service

4, 018

1,318

49 60

Internal revenue service:

Clerk
Storekeeper.gauger..

Total internal revenue service.

785
1, 270

102
137

2,055

Grand total for all branches of the classified

service.

31, 179

9, 508

2, 122

1,716 4,835 2,533

20,714 | 6, 128

924

762

1, 487

1, 164 10, 465

66+

TABLE 12.-Showing the education claimed by those taking competitive examinations for the classified civil service during the year ended June 30, 1896.

Number examined.

Common school.

Academic.

Business college.

High school.

Collegiate.

Service.

Total. Passed. Failed. Total. Passed. Failed. Total. Passed. Failed. Total. Passed. Failed. Total. Passed. Failed. Total. Passed. Failed.

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Departmental.
Railway mail
Indian....
Government printing
Customs
Postal
Internal revenue

3, 405 5, 113

615
1, 501
4, 018
14, 433
2, 055

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39

89
160

0
14
76
317
100

500
1, 284

152
196

658
3, 015

467

3 28 207 989 107

320
863
100
164

524
2, 556

293

180 421 52 32 134 489 174

777
608
173

64
532
1, 160

367

383
397
102

51
432
037
218

392 211 71 13 100 223 149

100 197 105

283 1, 306

207

Totals for all branches. 31, 140 20, 695

10, 445 15, 544

9, 446

6,098

3,042

2, 119

923

2, 471

1, 709

762

6, 302

4, 820

1,582 3,681

2, 522

1,15

Tho following language, taken from the fifth report, may bo fitly repeated in esplanation of tho above table:

These statistics concerning the education of competitors aro of comparatively little value, as they do not show with any degree of certainty what on their faco they purport to show, viz, the extent and character of the elucation which the competitors have received. Those who have had but a few months'or a few years' schooling at a country district school, as well as those who have been through all the grades of the best city schools, are alike classed as having received a commonschool education. The large per cent of failures among competitors of this class does not therefore prove anything of value concerning the quality of what may be called a full common-school education, nor concerning the character or difficulty of the examinations of the Commission.

What is shown is that a very large per cent of all those claiming to have received only a common-school education are able to pass the examinations creditably, and, wlien appointed, to do the public work satisfactorily, proving that tho average common-school education is adequate for intelligent and useful citizenship. What has been said of common schools may with equal propriety be said of high schools, acadenies, and colleges. When an applicant states that he bas bad an “academic, a "high-school,” or a “collegiate” education, nothing can with certainty be inferred froin it as to what his real education has been.

Tho experience and observation of the Commission thus far scems to justify the statement that whether a man will or will not successfully pass the examinations and become a useful public servant depends quite as much upon his personal qualities and the use lo las made of his opportunities since quitting school as upon the extent and character of the education he received in the schools.

In other words, while the education of the school is important and necessary as a preparation for tho public service, it does not in itself necessarily or generally constitute a complete preparation for that service any more than it does for a business or professional pursuit. It is that education joined with tho personal qualities and habits of the individual, mental, moral, and plıysical, that determines success or failure in the public service and in the steps leading thereto. This fact is often lost sight of by the critics of the Commission and its examinations and methods, when they charge that it is the students fresh from their books that pass the examinations most successfully. The figures show to the contrary, and, beyond question, prove that the clerical examinations of the Commission aro of that practical and common-sense character that enables those with only an ordinary education, backed by good common sense, to pass them.

II.-APPOINTMENTS, SEPARATIONS, ETC.

METHOD OF MAKING THE APPORTIONMENT.

The civil-service act requires all appointments in the classifiod departmental service at Washington made through examination to be apportioned among the several States and Territories and the District of Columbia upon the basis of population as ascertained at tho last preceding census. It has been found impossible to make and maintain such apportionment with mathematical exactness, but it has been equitably maintained with respect to most of the States. A very few of the States and nearly all of tho Territories have received relatively an excessive sharo of appointments as compared with the other States, as will be seen from the following tables. The excess has resulted partly from the necessity of examining and certifying for appointment to places requiring special or technical knowledge or skill such persons as offered themselves after duo public notice, without regard to their places of legal residence, the necessities of appointments through transfers and various noncompetitjve examinations, and the appointment of persons who were entitled to preference under section 1754, Revised Statutes. Persons with the peculiar qualifications needed in the special places have been found relatively in larger numbers in the States near the seat of government than elsewhere. Appointments to places outsido Washington are made mostly by districts and are not charged to the apportionment.

Except in the case of eligibles preferred under section 1754, Revised Statutes, the appointment under tho clerk-copyist examination at Washington must always be from the State having eligibles which at the time has received the least proportional share of all the appointments. The calculation is mado by a card system, which

shows at a glanco the relativo order of the States for appointment at any moment. Under this method, in which the Commission bas no discretion, the appointments at all times are as nearly equal among the States according to population as it is possiblo to apportion them. No State at any time has more than a very small excess of appointments over any other State. The supplementary and special examinations to some extent disarrange this procedure. When stenographers, bookkeepers, or other persons having qualifications tested by the supplementary and special exami. nations are called for, the eligibies standing highest, from the whole country must be certified, except those from the few States which at tho time havo a percentage of appointments greater than the average percentago for all the States taken together. The appointments from these and the noncompetitive registers, and of persons preferred under section 1754, Revised Statutes, may therefore fall in a greater or less ineasure to States not having the least share of appointments. Theso States thereforo receive a less sharo of tho clerk-copyist appointments.

The number of appointments charged to the District of Columbia early became so largely in excess of tho number to which it was entitled under the apportionment, that for ten years and inoro no persons having a legal residence in the District hare been examined, except through an entire failure of applicants from elsewhere. The facilities now afforded for convenient examination will, it is hoped, tend to prevent this excess in the future. Forty-six of the appointments received by the District were from noncompetitive examinations, held under the provisions of General Rule III, section 2, now repealed. The pamphlet of instructions to applicants explains in detail the method of certification for appointment.

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