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for use and give a pleasant variety in food. It is claimed, however, that “at the usual prices the nutrients in ready-toeat cereals are considerably dearer than those furnished by bread and crackers.” Where strict economy is not essential, the special convenience and variety is often considered to be worth the additional cost. During the first few years of the twentieth century, the most active competition prevailed between the numerous companies manufacturing ready-to-serve breakfast foods. Events in this business happened with kaleidoscopic rapidity. During the years of 1902 and 1903 there was an overproduction of cereal foods which caused a protracted glut in the market. Many of the younger companies were unable to continue in the business, and failed. The survivors are now doing a satisfactory business, and the making of cereal foods has settled down to a staple milling industry. The Natural Food Company, the present manufacturer of shredded wheat, has a conservatory overlooking Niagara Falls. It is one of the finest food factories in the world. Power is furnished by electricity from the Falls, and the total cost of the building and equipment was $2,000,000. The united structure covers an area of 55,653 square feet. It has 5.5 acres of floor space, and a frontage of 900 feet on the upper Niagara Rapids. Educational features have been established, and there is an auditorium, seating over 1000, for entertainments, lectures, and conventions. Its food has been a great commercial success, and is one of the best selling products on the American market today. Some of its products are also exported. Grape Nuts is an unpatented food. The manufacturing company relies on its trade marks for protection. By vigorous advertising it has created an extensive demand for its goods in the United States and in some foreign countries. “From 100,000 to 125,000 one-pound packages are put up daily, representing a daily consumption of 1,500,000 of portions. In the manufacture of Postum Food Coffee and Grape Nuts, about 2,200 bushels of wheat are consumed daily. These two products are mostly used by the English speaking race, but are being gradually introduced in all the commercial centers of the world. Stocks of both products are carried in all the prominent cities of the United States, Canada and England. Some 625 male and female employes find employment throughout dif

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ferent parts of the factory. The capital employed by the Postum Cereal Company is $5,000,000. Their expenditure for advertising is one million dollars per annum.’’’

Adulterations.—There are many substances that have been used to adulterate and cheapen flour. Among the vegetable substances are rye flour, corn and rice meal, potato starch, and meals from leguminous plants, such as peas and beans. Among the mineral substances are alum, borax, chalk, carbonate of magnesia, bone, and various clays. Alum in any form is harmful and the use of the others is reprehensible, for they often make a poor bread seem good. The addition up to 20 per cent of cornstarch can be used with high glutinous flours, but it produces a much drier loaf, lacking flavor. Terra alba has been widely used for adulteration in foreign countries, but at least as late as 1894 there was no knowledge of its having been used in the United States. Mineraline, one of its forms, was, however, subsequently used. The poorer classes of people sometimes adulterate the flour themselves. For example, it is said that the Scandinavian peasants at times mix half flour and half ground tree bark in their loaf. In the United States, an internal-revenue tax was levied on mixed flour by the war-revenue act of 1898. It largely stopped the mixing of cornstarch or corn flour with wheat flour, a practice that had been frequent.

Wheat Products as Animal Food.—All of the grain of wheat which is unfit for flour is generally fed to animals. Wheat that finds poor sale for any reason, as for example goose wheat and durum wheat in former times, is often fed to stock. In times of very low prices, even the bread wheats are extensively fed. During 1893 over four million bushels, or 16.5 per cent of the total wheat crop of Kansas, were fed to farm animals. Authorities, however, do not seem to be agreed as to the value of wheat for feeding. For certain feeding purposes it seems to have advantages over corn and other grains, while for other purposes it has disadvantages. It should generally be fed with other grains, and its food value is slightly increased by grinding. Wheat should not form more than half the grain ration. All classes of domestic animals are fond of wheat in any form.

1 Letter, Postum Cereal Co., Ltd. * Industrial Commission, 11:2.

Growing wheat is often pastured in the fall or spring. At times this can be done without injury. On the Pacific coast as much as 10 per cent of the wheat is sometimes cut green for the purpose of making wheat hay. This practice is often followed in Oregon. After the wheat is threshed the straw is often used as fodder in the United States, and also in other countries.

Other Uses of Wheat Straw.—In the time of Fitzherbert wheat straw was used in England to thatch houses. In the Old World some varieties of wheat are grown solely for making hats and other articles of plaited straw. It is also used for various other purposes, such as packing merchandise and making mattresses and door-mats. Another great use is in paper mills, where it is at times bought at $3 to $4 per ton. Efforts have been made in this manner to save some of the straw that is going to waste at the rate of millions of tons per year in North Dakota. The problem of using wheat straw economically is no nearer solution than it was 20 years ago. In the Northwest and on the Pacific coast it is often worse than useless, because it must be burned to get it out of the way.

The Per Capita Consumption of Wheat is not an index to the bread consumption of countries where rye bread is used. Including the amount required for seed, the estimated per capita consumption in the United States for 1902 to 1904 inclusive was 6.23 bushels. The following estimate of the per capita consumption of wheat in certain countries was presented to the British Royal Commission on Supply of Food and Raw Material in Time of War, by Mr. W. S. Patterson of the Liverpool Corn Trade Association.

PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF WHEAT
I. IN IMPORTING COUNTRIES

Bushels Bushels United Kingdom.................................. 5.6 Spain.............................................. S.3 Germany... ... 3.2 Portugal. .2.3 Belgium. ...7.2 Sweden... .2.0 France 7.8 Greece..... 3. Hollan .9 Austria-Hung 6 Italy... .4 Switzerland.... 7

II. IN ExpoRTING Count RIEs

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shels United States 4

India.
Austra

Argentina...

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CHAPTER XVII.

PRODUCTION AND MOVEMENT OF WHEAT

The United States Wheat Production.—With the development of any agricultural community, farming becomes more diversified. This tendency is already manifesting itself in the great wheat regions of the North Central States, not only in the diversification of crops on the smaller farms, but in the rotation of crops beginning to be practiced on the larger farms. There is also a tendency for even the largest farms to become divided into smaller holdings, and this will further increase the growing of diversified crops. All this diversification will tend to decrease the wheat acreage in the best wheat lands of the West. With the development of our whole country, land values are certain to rise. This is a factor of the greatest importance, for it will make certain lands too valuable for the production of wheat, while it will sufficiently raise the price of other lands now lying idle so that their cultivation will become profitable. Some wheat will be grown on many eastern and southern farms which are not cultivated at present. With the development of drought resistant varieties of wheat, the wheat acreage in the semi-arid regions of western United States will be increased.

It is probable that all of these developments will result in a reverse in the historic westward movement of the center of wheat production, and that this center may begin to retrace its course and proceed eastward, for it is probable that the decrease of western acreage by diversified farming, and the increase of eastern and southern acreage resulting from the raising of wheat on lands formerly abandoned, will more than counterbalance the increased acreage in the semi-arid regions. On the whole, it has been concluded by some students of agricultural statistics that the limit of wheat production in the United States has approximately been reached. With the future growth in population, and especially with the further development of mining and other non-agricultural industries, the home consumption of wheat in the West will be greatly

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increased. This will have a tendency to diminish wheat exports from western United States, and may even divert to the West some of the grain from the Central States which is now

ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, VALUE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF wheat of THE
UNITED STATES IN 1905, BY STATEs’
(In round thousands.)

Crop of 1905 Stock in jo: State or Territory floo. where Acreage |Production | Value - grown Acres Bushels | Dollars | Bushels |Percent | Bushels

Maine...................... 8 181 192 58 32 o Vermont.................. 1 27 25 10 35 o New York................ 491 10.301 8,859 2,472 24 1,442 New Jersey............ -1 10 1,805 1,589 397 22 361 Pennsylvania.......... 1,629 27,861 || 24239 10,030 36 2,786 Delaware................ 121 1,670 1,369 417 25 78s Maryland................ 810 13,197 10,821 2,903 22 8,050 Virginia.................. 738 8,417 7,408 2,273 27 3,115 North Carolina...... 593 3,975 4,055 1,073 27 199 South Carolina...... 3.18 1,942 2,156 369 19 19 Georgia.................... 305 2,107 2,254 485 23 63 Alabama................. 108 1,041 1,051 177 17 10 Mississippi.............. 3 28 27 0. 0 0. exas........................ 1,249 11,118 || 9,784 1,668 15 3,113 Arkansas................ 198 1,565 1,408 344 22 63 Tennessee............... 882 6.3.49 5,777 1,206 19 1,968 West Virginia........ 356 4,373 3,892 1,268 29 670 Kentucky............... 780 8,810 7,665 1,586 18 3.083 Ohio........................ 1,883 32,198 26,402 9,015 28 16.421 Michigan..................] 1,027 19,003 15,013 5,131 27 7,981 Indiana....................! 1,932 35,351 28,988 8,131 23 16,615 Illinois..................... 1,872 29,952 24,261 5,691 19 13,778 Wisconsin................ 474 7,893 5,999 2,842 36 947 Minnesota............... 5,446 72,434 51,428 20,282 28 54,326 Iowa........................ 964 13,683 9,715 4,242 31- 3,421 Missouri.................. 2,260 28,022 22,138 5.324 19 12,610 Kansas.................... 5,536 77,001 54,671 13,860 18 57,751 Nebraska................ 2,473 48,003 31,682 12,961 27 31,202 South Dakota........ 3,221 44,133 29,569 11,033 25 34,865 North Dakota........ 5,402 75,623 52,180 15,125 20 64,280 Montana.................. 119 2,843 2,019 995 35 768 Wyoming................ 29 748 539 217 29 52 Colorado.................. 254 6,359 4,451 1,526 24 3,815 New Mexico............ 43 948 853 227 24 28 Arizona.................... 15 3.32 388 56 17 10 Utah........................ 178 4,710 3,156 1,837 39 1,178 Nevada.................... 27 724 557 116 16 14 Idaho.................... 367 10,342 6,785 1,861 18 6,722 Washington............ 1,322 32,517 21,326 5,203 16 25,038 Oregon.................... 718 13,383 9,100 2,409 18 7,227 California................ 1,886 17,542 14,384 1,403 8 . 10,876 Oklahoma................ 1,435 11,764 8,117 1,882 16 7,058 Indian Territory.... 270 2,703 2,081 297 11 1,351 United States..... 47,854 692,979 |518,373 158,403 22.9 404,092

1 Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr., 1906.

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