Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

exported by way of Gulf and Atlantic ports. With the increase of population and local consumption, the internal and export movement of wheat will greatly decrease, and American wheat will be a factor of declining importance in the international grain trade.

visiblE supply of wheat IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, FIRST of EACH MonTH, FOR TEN YEARs'

(In round thousands )

EAST OF ROCKY MOUNTAINS PACIFIC COAST Month 1896-1897 1905. 1906 || 1896-1897 1905-1906 i

Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels

July.... 61,354 20 476 1,927 839 August ... 58,414 21,314 1917 581 September................................... 57, S88 21 705 3,512 1,130 October.............. 63.955 28,894 5.454 3,156 November..................................... 76,716 53 745 6,883 4.486 December................... 76,433 62 402 6.5.48 5.866 }. ------------------------------------- ... 73,270 71,634 4,189 5 S 11 ebruary....................................... 68 092 73 151 3.005 5,295 March............ 61,664 70.5.30 1,857 4,898 April..... 55,946 66,509 1.730 4.947 May........ 49 684 54.856 1,614 3,917 June........ 37,975 40,347 1,221 3,349

QUANTITY AND PERCENTAGE of Doxfestic wheat, INCLUDING

FLOUR, EXPORTED FROM LEADING PORTS FOR YEARs ENDING JUNE 30,1884-1904. *

ANNUAL AVERAGE

1904 Customs 1884-1888 1894-1898 District

Bushels |Per cent Bushels |Per cent Bushels |Per cent

Atlantic................. 82.757,000 67 6 102.780 000 64 4 57.361 000. 47 5 Gulf ....................... 2.061,000 1 7 10,843 000 (, 8 33.315 000 27.6 Pacific .................... 31,865 000 26 0 36.833 000 23 1 22 334,000 18 5 All other.................] 5,737,000 4.7 9,118,000 5.7 7,717,000 6 4

Total exports .... 122,420,000 100 0 159,504,000 100.0 120,728,000 100 0

* Yearbook U. S. Dept. A gr. 1906.
* U. S. Dept. Agr., Bu. of Sta., Bul. 38, 1905.

[merged small][graphic]

A feature of the wheat industry in the United States that merits special mention is the increased production of durum wheats. These wheats are now widely grown in the semi-arid regions where the annual rainfall does not exceed 10 or 12 inches. In the early years they were a product very difficult of profitable sale, but they are now assuming a strong commercial position. The nature of the grain was not generally understood by American millers until it had been on the market for several years. In Russia it is blended with about 25 per cent of red wheat, and the same practice has been followed with some success in the United States. Many mills are now grinding the grain. A large portion of the durum wheat grown in the United States is exported, chiefly to Marseilles and other ports of the Mediterranean sea. About 10,000,000 bushels were exported during the year ending June 30, 1906. About 2,000,000 bushels were produced in 1902, 6,000,000 in 1903, 20,000,000 in 1905, and 50,000,000 bushels in 1906.

Russian Wheat Production.—Viewed solely from the point of view of its natural resources and economic aspects, Russia is the United States of Europe. It has immense undeveloped areas that would form ideal wheat lands, lands very similar to those which constitute the wheat belt of the United States. European Russia may be divided into two regions distinct as to the nature of their soil by a line running from Bessarabia in the southwest to Ufa in the northeast. In the southeast is the chernozium (black soil) region, and in the northwest the non-chernozium region. Clay, sand and rocky soils are all found in the non-black soil region, which lacks fertility and is chiefly devoted to the production of rye. The black soil zone is an arable plain, vast in extent, very fertile in soil, arising through centuries from the decomposition of accumulated Steppe grasses and sheltered by outlying forests. This plain stretches across the empire to the Ural Mountains, extending completely over 15 provinces and partially over 12, and even reappearing in Siberia. It is one of the largest fertile sections of land on the globe. In European Russia, the 18 provinces which lie chiefly in the black soil region produce two-thirds of the wheat and only one-third of the rye. Of the 328,000,000 acres of arable land, 59 per cent, or 193,000,000 acres, is located in the black soil region. Of the 197,000,000 acres of cereal crops, 72 per cent, or 142,000,000 acres, is found in the chernozium area. The black soil is of great uniformity in type and composition, varies in depth from a few inches to about 4 feet, and owes its dark color to its high proportion of organic substances (4 to 16 per cent). The Russian Steppes have fully as great a similarity to the Great Plains of the United States in climate as in soil, although greater extremes prevail. The similarity between Russia and the United States in the natural resources of the wheat growing regions is quite equaled by the dissimilarity in political practice, social theory and economic condition. The Slav does not possess the Anglo-Saxon’s proud institutional heritage. The Russian proletariat have no “Uncle Sam'’ who is rich enough to provide farms for all. There is, indeed, plenty of land, and they do have the Little Father, who is supposed to exercise a paternal care over his people. Sadly lacking in the institutions that are fundamental for progress and prosperity, however, the Russian people have found the Little Father to be far less capable and generous in aiding their material advancement than is essential to its realization. Consequently they have been unable to rise above their ignorance, poverty and misery. A population of exuberant fertility residing in a land of unlimited natural resources, the Russian peasantry have had neither means nor opportunity to attain a higher plane of life. The poor system of land ownership and the antiquated methods of agriculture made Russian wheat a dear wheat in spite of cheap labor and a low standard of living. The future possibilities of Russian wheat production depend upon the social, economic and educational progress of Russia. There are symptoms of improvement in this direction. The extension of peasant land ownership is improving economic conditions. It seems that political and social conditions are at last changing and popular education is growing. In agriculture, better machinery is being introduced, and crops are being rotated. The production of wheat increased 122 per cent in European Russia from 1870 to 1904. From 1881 to 1904 the acreage in wheat gained 57.3 per cent, while that of rye gained only 1.7 per cent, and the ratio between wheat and rye changed from 45:100 to 70:100. The yield of wheat per

acre decreases from west to east,

Since the construction of the Great Siberian Railway the actual and potential productive powers of Asiatic Russia, and especially of Siberia, have been an interesting subject for spec

ulation in Europe and America.

In the popular conception

previous to this event, Siberia was a land of polar nights and eternal snow, the monotony of whose dreary wastes was broken only by the clanking chains of Russia's exiles—exiles who were not always criminals, but who, according to Occidental ideas, frequently represented the very flower of Russian citizenship.

AREA UNDER wheat IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE'
(In round thousands )

|-> | r European Northern West Middle Year Total Russia Poland Caucasia | Siberia Asia Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres

1895........................... 42.233 31,894 1,170 5,808 2,594 767 1896 .......................... 45,869 34,848 1,198 5,589 2,905 1.329 1897........................... 46,733 35,606 1.210 5,589 3,021 1,206 1898 .......................... 47,019 36,008 1,221 5,263 3,377 1,150 1899.......................... 49,743 38 045 1,305 5,966 3,179 1,248 1900............ .............. 52 313 39,967 1.3.18 6,228 3,660 1,140 1901 .......................... 54,306 41,921 1,247 6,416 3,537 1.185 1902 ......................... 55,112 42 590 1,301 6,817 2,933 1,471 1903 .......................... 57,221 43 75.3 1.292 7,189 3,455 1,532 1904 ............... .......... 59,186 45,635 1.242 7,473 3.352 1,484

PRODUCTION OF WHEAT AND

(In round thousands.)

RYE IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

Wheat Year | p. - M Rye Total E §. " Poland Caucasia | Siberia Mole

Bushels | Bushels | Bushels | Bushels | Bushels | Bushels Bolshels 1805. 413.341 292,272 17.386 67,127 29 003 7 462 801.413 1896. 412,038 300.423 19.477 45.148 34.160 12 s 30 789,562 1897. 340,171 238,557 17 808 20.883 42 835 11,087 7 12,310 1898........ 459,289 3.34.246 21.691 52.25 ! 36, 157 1 4 0.44 737 501 1899.......... 454,145 314,877 21 5.45 57.3 : 3 45 473 1 4 0.38 9 : 1,633 1900. 422,994 || 3 19 103 19.722 56.048 20,172 () () 50 020 34 1901. 427,781 319,992 14.409 67 232 1 (, 504 9,645 754,927 1902......... 607,370 463 250 20 349 77 ()6() 30,796 15,897 Q 10 019 1903......... 621.459 454,598 19 256 77,941 48.670 20,905 911.944 1904. 666,752 519,966 21 241 81,132 31.500 12,823 || 1 008 4-10 1905......... 636,285 568,274 20.239 96.708 42.411 ........ I ............ 1906......... 506,400 450,900 19,000 73,000 35,000 | ........ . ............ 1907......... 511,000 || 455,000 ........ . .... ---- -------- i. -------- -----------

1 U. S. Dept. Agr., Bu. of Sta., Bul. 42, 1906, p. 16.

« AnteriorContinuar »